(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Vector Network Analyzers (VNA) are designed to measure S-parameters of RF and Microwave devices and circuits. S-parameters are by definition ratios and as such the actual test power utilized is not... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
S-parameters are dependent on the impedance to which they are referenced and many measurements are now performed in a non-50 ohm world. Matching and other tasks are now often referenced to something... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
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The international standard, ISO/IEC 17025, promulgates the essential requirements for demonstration of the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. It covers testing and calibration... (View Full Article)
(Data Acquisition)
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Cellular wireless telephony has expanded dramatically over the past ten years. Both the size and the number of service providers have increased. Technology has advanced with the expansion. The... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Distance To Fault (DTF) is a performance verification and failure analysis tool used for antenna and transmission line service and maintenance. It uses the Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR)... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
A frequent need in S-parameter measurements is to remove the effects of a fixture or virtually add in the effects of other networks (e.g., matching). Embedding and de-embedding are tools for virtually... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
The High Accuracy Power Meter is the latest addition to Anritsu's handheld products. It is designed to provide field users with a practical power meter solution for base station testing by delivering... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Transmission feed line system performance plays an important role in wireless network coverage. Insertion loss measurement is one of the critical measurements used to analyze transmission feed line... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Intermodulation distortion (IMD) has become increasingly important in microwave and RF amplifier design. As modulation techniques become more sophisticated, greater performance is required from... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Growth of personal broadband services is inevitable, given a seemingly insatiable consumer appetite for high-speed data, instant communications, and instant video. The urgency of having these services... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
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This application note discusses frequency conversion device measurements with the Anritsu 37100A Vector Network Analyzer. The 37200B and 37300A VNAs will also make these measurements, in addition to... (View Full Article)
(Semiconductors)
From this Article:
Video feed-through is a very misunderstood term, which is used in the specification of pulse performance for microwave synthesizers. There are several ways of specifying it. Depending on the... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Anritsu's handheld Site Master, Cell Master, BTS Master, Spectrum Master, and VNA Master products provide a wide range of modes and options for power measurements including the High Accuracy Power... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
In the mid 1980's a second generation (2G) digital system known as the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) was introduced for mobile telephony. It significantly improved speech quality over... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) digital communications technology is based on wireless transmission methods defined by the IEEE-802.16 air interface standard. Intended for... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Anritsu Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) measure the magnitude and phase characteristics of networks that include passives (e.g., diplexers, cables, filters, antennas, SAW devices, balanced and... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Many devices, particularly power devices, were not designed to operate continuously or with CW signals. When devices are being tested on-wafer, this becomes even truer since thermal resistance is... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Twenty four years ago Wiltron (now Anritsu) published a Technical Review "Why Tolerate Unnecessary Measurement Errors", long since out of print. Thousands were printed and it was widely used by test... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
With the increasing proliferation of multiport devices at both RF and microwave frequencies, it is sometimes practical to use a multiport test set connected to a 2 or 4 port Vector Network Analyzer... (View Full Article)
(Data Acquisition)
From this Article:
RF interference takes many forms. In this application note we discuss how to detect and eliminate, or at least reduce, interference caused by discrete emitters. These emitters may be devices intended... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
What is a Spectrum Analyzer? A measuring instrument that displays an electrical signal according to its frequency. When the signal and local oscillator are added at the mixer input, the suitable input... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
While the simplest coaxial two port device to measure on a vector network analyzer (VNA) would be insertable (i.e., one male and one female connector), these are often in a minority of the devices to... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Calibrations are the critical first step to multiport vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements and there are many choices. A mixed-mode S-parameter representation for balanced devices is also... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) are very flexible measuring instruments-the microwave engineer's most powerful tool. Their basic capability is to measure the S-parameters of an RF or microwave device... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
The use of Tower Mounted Amplifiers (TMAs) in cellular, PCS, GSM and 3G Base Stations has offered significant improvements to carriers to minimize call drops, loss of communication, and provide a more... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Synthesizers, vector network analyzers, frequency counters, spectrum analyzers and many other instruments must accurately create or measure frequency. However, their accuracy is affected by time,... (View Full Article)
(Power Generation and Storage)
From this Article:
System dynamic range of a VNA is defined as the difference between the measurement power available at the test port and the noise floor of the receiver. In situations where dynamic range is pushed to... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
This field brief will discuss phase-matching cables, S-parameter definitions as they apply to cable characterization and other cable parameters such as Phase Shift and Group Delay. Advanced... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electromagnetic Sensing)
From this Article:
The performance of AM and FM broadcast stations is regulated in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and in other countries by their own regulatory bodies. Part 73 of the... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
The performance of AM and FM broadcast stations is regulated in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and in other countries by their own regulatory bodies. Part 73 of the... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
BTS System Line Sweep and PIM Testing White Paper... (View Full Article)
(Multimeters and Electrical Test Meters)
From this Article:
The VectorStar ME7838A Broadband system operates from 70 kHz to 110 (125) GHz utilizing the small, compact 3743x mmWave module. The ME7838A system offers on-wafer device characterization with... (View Full Article)
(Multimeters and Electrical Test Meters)
From this Article:
In times of great emergency (such as September 11th attacks, Hurricane Katrina, or the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico) access to reliable, integrated communications and tactical information is... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
In times of great emergency (such as September 11th attacks, Hurricane Katrina, or the 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico) access to reliable, integrated communications and tactical information is... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
Transmission Line and Antenna Testing has become a common test of RF network integrity over the past few years. This relatively new testing methodology is a result of new test equipment evolutions and... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
Finding the source of radio frequency interference is a critically important activity as the number of emitters inexorably increases. These emitters are not only licensed and unlicensed transmitters... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
As wireless systems proliferate worldwide, the number one enemy of wireless systems designers and service providers is signal interference. Interference hampers coverage and capacity, and limits the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
This white paper discusses the available de-embedding techniques and the tradeoffs between them.... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
Designers, modelers, and manufacturers of RF and microwave frequency amplifiers used in applications such as radar, wireless communication, or high-speed digital communication systems at either the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electromagnetic Sensing)
From this Article:
Radar cross section RCS is the measure of an object's ability to reflect radar signal in the direction of the radar receiver i.e. it is the measure of the ratio of backscatter per steradian (unit... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
While intermodulation distortion measurements are common at microwave frequencies, they are performed less often at mm-wave frequencies sometimes because of the complexity in setting up the... (View Full Article)
(Multimeters and Electrical Test Meters)
From this Article:
Frequency translated devices are key components of any communication system, whether they are up-converters, down-converters or basic mixers. Since their input and output frequencies are different,... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
Semiconductor manufacturing test engineers face increased challenges today related to broadband millimeter wave (MMW) on-wafer testing. Developing accurate models often requires measuring frequencies... (View Full Article)
(Multimeters and Electrical Test Meters)
From this Article:
This white paper discusses the challenges associated with millimeter-wave testing and how to optimize your Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) measurement capability to provide the confidence required to... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
Cloud computing, smart phones, and LTE services are causing a large increase in network traffic. The instantaneous traffic rates at internet data centers have reached 1 Tbit/s. To support this... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Wireless broadband has been in the news lately with January¡¯s 700 MHz spectrum auction, the announcement of Sprint¡¯s WiMAX network and the first promising trials of next generation wireless (3GPP... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
The use of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) severely complicates the process of measuring eNodeB power and modulation quality in LTE systems. The difficulties include the fact that spectrum... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Hospitals are replete with sources of interference and many applications that require the ultimate in reliability to assure patient safety. Patient telemetry systems, cellular telephones, bluetooth... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
Public safety receivers are built to perform in the harshest environments. Physically they appear to be up to any challenge. Some even work under water. Unfortunately, it is not easy to see how they... (View Full Article)
(Multimeters and Electrical Test Meters)
From this Article:
This application note covers how to spot, find and fix RF interference including defining what it is you are looking for, the first indicators, spotting interference in the field and resolving the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
Learn how the Anritsu VectorStar can be used to resolve high-speed interconnect bottlenecks in this 2-page Application Brief.... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
Higher data rates introduce new challenges for test solutions. This white paper discusses the importance of both high and low frequency test limits and also their impact on your time domain results.... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
Signal Integrity applications commonly utilize balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized using vector network analyzers (VNA). There are two approaches to performing... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) are very powerful and flexible measuring instruments. Their basic capability is to measure the S-parameters of an RF or microwave device and display the result in the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
From this Article:
Anritsu Tracking Generator Application Brief for its line of E-Series Spectrum Analyzers.... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Imagine being able to troubleshoot defective Wire Cable Assemblies without having to crawl through aircraft bulkheads or remove one access panel after another searching for a cable fault. The Anritsu... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
The introduction of high-speed data within mobile communications devices has increased the network traffic within a cellular system to the degree that it is greatly affecting network performance. It... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
The cable and antenna system plays a crucial role of the overall performance of a Base Station system. Degradations and failures in the antenna system may cause poor voice quality or dropped calls.... (View Full Article)
(Networking Equipment)
From this Article:
Measuring the quality of the impedance match of a test device (VSWR or Return Loss), requires separation of the incident signal from the reflected signal. Separation of the two signals is performed by... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
This guide is designed to introduce the reader to Passive Intermodulation (PIM). It will discuss what it is and its impact on cellular systems, as well as how the contractor, engineer or field... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
In this guide, the concept of calibration is presented and discussed in detail. Specific topics to be covered include how to configure the VNA for calibration, types of calibration and calibration... (View Full Article)
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
The eye pattern is a useful tool for assessing the integrity of digital signals. The ones and zeroes of a data stream are superimposed to form an eye pattern, providing a good representation of how... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
This application note provides a summary description of the operation and capabilities of a Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), including general considerations of front panel operation and measurement... (View Full Article)