Technical Articles

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Lambda Technologies


Lambda Technologies has published these technical articles:

(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A technique and apparatus are described for obtaining the elastic constant E/(1 + ?) in selected crystallographic directions for the purpose of calibrating x-ray diffraction residual stress... (View Full Article)
(Contract Manufacturing and Fabrication)
From this Article:
Corrosion and corrosion related fatigue of structural components threatens the readiness of military aircraft and greatly increases the cost of maintenance of virtually all legacy aircraft. Annual... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Mechanical suppression of corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) through low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been demonstrated in several systems. LPB can be used to impart controlled... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Many manufacturing processes, including uniaxial compression, wire drawing, rolling, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), tend to orient crystals in the material with a specific crystallographic plane... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
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The potential corrosion fatigue performance benefit of applying low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to alloy 450 stainless steel (UNS S45000) was investigated. Damage tolerance and aggressive corrosion... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) is a surface enhancement method that produces a deep layer of compressive residual stress with minimal cold working and an improved surface finish. Extensive fatigue... (View Full Article)
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From this Article:
This paper describes the application of Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) to increase the damage tolerance and fatigue strength of a Ti-6Al-4V fan blade that is fatigue life limited by the occurrence of... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Shot peening is commonly used to produce a layer of compressive residual stress at the surface of components subject to fatigue or stress corrosion failure. Monitoring the Almen intensity controls the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The measurement of residual stress distributions with depth is critical to understanding the impact of machining, shot peening, induction hardening, and similar processes on fatigue performance. The... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Shot peening is frequently used to produce compressive residual stress in the surface layer of components for fatigue life enhancement and suppression of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Shot peening... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Surface enhancement technologies such as shot peening, laser shock peening (LSP), and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) can provide substantial fatigue life improvement. However, to be effective, the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Surface enhancement technologies such as shot peening (SP), laser shock peening (LSP) and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) can provide mitigation of foreign object damage (FOD), fretting fatigue,... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Salt spray corrosion pits are a common site of fatigue crack initiation in aluminum alloy aircraft components. Salt corrosion pitting occurs during exposure to the marine atmosphere and results in... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
300M steel is widely used in aircraft landing gear because of its unique combination of strength and fracture toughness, but is vulnerable to foreign object damage (FOD), corrosion fatigue, and stress... (View Full Article)
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From this Article:
Friction stir welding (FSW) allows the joining of aluminum alloys in ways previously unattainable offering new manufacturing technology. Friction stir processing (FSP) of cast alloys such as Ni-Al... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A brief theoretical development of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement is presented emphasizing practical engineering applications of the plane-stress model, which requires no external... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been demonstrated to increase the damage tolerance of Ti- 6Al-4V fan blades by an order of magnitude. First stage Ti-6Al-4V fan blades were LPB processed using a... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance of turbine engine components has long been improved by the introduction of a surface layer of compressive residual stress, usually by shot peening. However,... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Hardening of steels requires heating to an austenitic phase and quenching to room temperature to produce a hard martensitic phase. Austenite is an FCC phase that is stable above a temperature of 735... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Distortion during machining can result in high scrap rates and increased manufacturing costs. Distortion results from either the introduction or elimination of residual stresses during manufacture.... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A modified Integral Method was investigated as a means to nondestructively measure the subsurface residual stress distribution. The technique has been demonstrated to be feasible in aluminum alloys by... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
High cycle fatigue (HCF) ultimately limits the performance of aircraft and automotive components, increases maintenance costs and reduces the service life. The HCF life of automotive and aerospace... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Lambda Research recently completed a study of residual stress distributions developed in partial J-weld penetrations in nuclear pressure vessels. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) field failures had... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Mechanical surface treatments including shot peening (SP), laser shock peening (LSP) and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) have been shown to introduce compressive residual stresses that improve high... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
The fretting fatigue performance of Ti-6Al-4V after isothermal exposure was explored in test coupons in low plasticity burnished (LPB), shot peened (SP) and electropolished (ELP) baseline conditions.... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Taguchi experimental methods are now widely used in many industries to efficiently optimize the manufacturing process. An iterative approach allows multiple complex properties to be rapidly optimized... (View Full Article)
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From this Article:
The welding process induces residual tensile stress that is detrimental to fatigue life. Tensile stresses act to stretch or pull apart the surface of the material. With enough load cycles at a high... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Nuclear Steam Generator (SG) service reliability and longevity have been seriously affected worldwide by corrosion at the tube-to-tubesheet joint expansion. Current SG designs for new facilities and... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new solid state joining process for aluminum alloys including those alloys considered not weldable. However, the FSW process produces zones of tensile residual stress... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Friction stir welding provides a new technology for solid state joining of a wide variety of aluminum alloys that cannot be joined with conventional fusion welds. However, recent work has shown that... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) is a surface enhancement process with significant economic and physical attributes that make it attractive for component repair/refurbishment applications in aging... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Subsurface x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements are necessary to fully assess the magnitude and depth of stress distributions. Layers of material must be removed for subsurface measurement... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Surface enhancement methods induce a layer of residual compressive stress to improve fatigue life. Shot peening is inexpensive and widely used, but the associated cold work accelerates relaxation of... (View Full Article)
(Contract Manufacturing and Fabrication)
From this Article:
Friction stir welding (FSW) offers great promise as a means of joining dissimilar alloys and producing welds with superior metallurgical properties and strengths. Fasteners may be eliminated from many... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Mechanical surface treatments that introduce a layer of residual surface compression improve high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance. If the depth of compression extends through the thickness of blade or... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) has been applied to produce a layer of deep high magnitude compressive residual stress in the leading edge of Ti-6Al-4V first stage fan blades. The goal was to improve... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The deep stable layer of compressive residual stress produced by low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been demonstrated in laboratory testing to improve damage tolerance in engine alloys IN718,... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Although friction stir welding (FSW) produces minimal distortion, residual stresses are created that impact fatigue and stress corrosion performance. X-ray diffraction residual stress and cold work... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
High cycle fatigue (HCF) strength and the resistance to foreign object damage (FOD) can be improved by the use of mechanical surface treatments like shot peening and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Significant progress has been made in the application of low plasticity burnishing (LPB) technology to military engine components, leading to orders of magnitude improvement in damage tolerance.... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Aircraft engines are subject to high cycle fatigue (HCF) that can lead to engine failures. Further, foreign object damage (FOD) caused by the ingestion of debris into the engine, creates crack... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) has been investigated as a post-weld surface treatment to improve the corrosion fatigue performance of friction stir welded (FSW) AA2219 plate. Welds were fabricated... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The effect of various surface treatments on the fretting fatigue and joint fatigue performance of a 7xxx series aluminum alloy was investigated with the objective to reduce the nucleation and growth... (View Full Article)
(Engineering and Technical Services)
From this Article:
The threat of low cycle fatigue (LCF) failure greatly increases the cost of inspection, maintenance, and operation of turbine engines. Surface enhancement, or the introduction of a layer of... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance of turbine engine components has long been improved by the introduction of a surface layer of compressive residual stress, usually by shot peening. However,... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Large separator centrifuges are widely used in the production of corn oil, cornstarch, and starch derivatives found in many household products including bread, toothpaste, diapers, and filters. A... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
High cycle fatigue (HCF) performance of turbine engine components has been known for decades to benefit from compressive surface residual stresses introduced through shot peening. However, credit for... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Three iterations of Taguchi designed experiments and analyses were used to determine optimal thermal treatments for minimizing retained austenite content while maximizing Rockwell hardness (HRC) in... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been investigated as a surface enhancement process and corrosion mitigation method for aging aircraft structural applications. Compressive residual stresses... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The benefits of applying low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to 17-4PH Stainless Steel (H1100) on both the fatigue and corrosion fatigue performance were compared with the shot peened (SP) and low stress... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Since the 1950's, the U.S. Marine Corps has sought a V/STOL (Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing) tactical strike aircraft that provides close, offensive air support for U.S.M.C. operations. Powered... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
otal hip replacement surgery is often required to alleviate pain and improve the function of hips damaged from disease or fracture. It is estimated that over 300,000 hip replacement surgeries are... (View Full Article)
(Contract Manufacturing and Fabrication)
From this Article:
The P-3C is a land-based, long-range, anti-submarine warfare (ASW) patrol aircraft, which has effectively served the U.S. Navy since July of 1962. The veteran aircraft is set in motion by four Allison... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Entering the U.S. Air Force inventory in December of 1956, the C-130 Hercules primarily serves as an intra-theater air lifter for paradropping troops and equipment into hostile areas. Having... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Alloy 600 penetrations in several pressurized water reactors have experienced primary water stress corrosion cracking near the partial penetration J-welds between the Alloy 600 and the cladding on the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Various methods exist to determine residual stresses in metallic engineered components. Some methods are more practical than others, depending upon the material, geometry and the desired locations and... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Distortion of the work piece during machining can result in costly increases in scrap rates. Residual stresses may be present in the original forging or casting. When machining away portions of the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Corrosion related fatigue failures of aluminum structural alloys adversely impact the structural integrity of aging aircraft. A chemically active environment, susceptible material and alternating... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A test program was set up by AFRL-VASM to study the effect of low plasticity burnishing (LPB) to mitigate fatigue debit due to pre-cracking damage in two feature specimens made of AA2024-T851 and... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Compressor blades of a military aircraft turbine engine made of 17-4 PH stainless steel have been reported to have blade edge foreign object damage (FOD), corrosion pitting, and erosion damage that... (View Full Article)
(Contract Manufacturing and Fabrication)
From this Article:
Often, turbine engine components are retired from service before "full life" is reached. Turbine disks are a typical example. One of the most common reasons for turbine disk retirement is accumulated... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) is now established as a surface enhancement technology capable of introducing through-thickness compressive residual stresses in the edges of gas turbine engine blades... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
300M steel is widely used in landing gear because of its unique combination of ultrahigh strength with high fracture toughness. However, 300M is vulnerable to both corrosion fatigue and stress... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed for decades in austenitic alloy weldments such as type 304 stainless steel as well as in Ni based alloy weldments including Alloy 600 and 690. SCC... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The intent of this paper is not to present a new technology available to springmakers and spring users. The intent of this paper is to utilize existing spring manufacturing and analysis techniques to... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Surface enhancement technologies such as shot peening (SP), laser shock peening (LSP), and low plasticity burnishing (LPB) can provide substantial fatigue life improvement. However, to be effective,... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Because the anisotropy of individual crystals, the physical properties of more polycrystalline materials are dependent upon any preferred orientation or "texture" which may be developed by rolling and... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A modified Integral Method was investigated as a means to nondestructively measure the subsurface residual stress distribution. The technique has been demonstrated to be feasible in aluminum alloys by... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
As a tensor property, the macroscopic residual stress will generally vary with direction at any point on a body. In most residual stress investigations, the direction of interest is indicated by the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Because surface measurements are non-destructive, xray diffraction is often considered as a method of residual stress measurement for quality control testing. Unfortunately, errors caused by the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Because surface measurements are non-destructive, x-ray diffraction is often considered as a method of residual stress measurement for quality control testing. Unfortunately, errors caused by the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
This article relating to the problem of stress variation in the plane of the sample surface is the second in a series of three addressing the difficulties encountered in measurement and interpretation... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
This article concerning errors in the measurement of the surface stress caused by the penetration of the x-ray beam is the third and final article in a series addressing the difficulties encountered... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Many automotive, aerospace, and machine components are subject to wear and abrasion. Common methods of preventing wear and abrasion consist primarily of case hardening methods, particularly... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Shot peening is frequently used to produce compressive residual stress in the surface layer of components for fatigue life enhancement and suppression of stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Shot peening... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Silica is one of the most abundant materials on earth. It can exist in several crystalline forms, most commonly alpha quartz and cristobalite. Amorphous silica is used in a wide variety of... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Medical and dental implants employing hydroxylapatite (HA) plasma-sprayed coatings on a structural substrate are widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. Both the crystallinity of the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
300M steel is often used in landing gear because of its high strength and high fracture toughness. Conversely, 300M steel is highly susceptible to corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Traditional residual stress measurement by x-ray diffraction provides a single value of the residual stress in one direction at each point of measurement, similar to the results obtained from a single... (View Full Article)
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From this Article:
The data presented are part of a more extensive study of residual stress distributions in U-bend tubing used in steam generators. The results, however, are typical of the residual stress and cold work... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Abrasion of a metallic surface to improve bonding during strain gage installation is generally thought to produce negligible effect on the measurement of applied or residual stresses by blind hole... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The magnitude and depth of the layer of compressive residual stress produced by shot peening is critical to achieving increased component fatigue strength. Although the Almen strip provides a... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A section of once through steam generator (OTSG) tubing, approximately 33 cm. long and encompassing the roll expansion region in the upper tubesheet (hot leg), was removed from the Davis Besse Nuclear... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Corrosion related fatigue in aluminum structural alloys and fretting damage in high strength steels are primary failure mechanisms that reduce the structural integrity of aging aircraft. A chemically... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Retained austenite strongly influences the properties of steel. The fatigue life, ductility, toughness, hardness, yield strength, and machinability, can all depend upon the austenite content. Accurate... (View Full Article)
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
From this Article:
Corrosion induced cracking, pitting, and the resultant failure of high strength aircraft aluminums are some of the most costly, and potentially catastrophic, material problems affecting the modern and... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
X-ray diffraction can be used to determine, simultaneously and independently, both macroscopic and microscopic residual stresses. Macrostresses extend over distances large compared to the grain size,... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Selected data showing typical macroscopic residual stress distributions in u-bent Inconel 600, and 90 deg. bends in Incoloy 800 are presented. The results indicate regions of both high magnitude... (View Full Article)
(Contract Manufacturing and Fabrication)
From this Article:
Degradation processes such as foreign object damage (FOD), fretting, active corrosion fatigue, corrosion pitting, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are recognized to seriously affect military... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard stress corrosion cracking (SCC), in austenitic alloys, depending upon their magnitude and sign. A combined... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Surface enhancement, the creation of a layer of residual compression at the surface of a component, is widely used to improve the fatigue life in the automotive and aerospace industries. The... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Low Plasticity Burnishing (LPB) has been developed as a rapid, inexpensive surface enhancement method adaptable to existing CNC machine tools. LPB produces a deep layer of compression with minimal... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear reactor systems are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) failures. SCC has been observed for decades and continues to be a primary maintenance concern... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Cold work produced during machining or shot peening can have a dramatic influence on the formation of tensile residual stress following bulk plastic deformation. Components subjected to applied stress... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The underlying motivation for this work was to test the conventional wisdom that 100% coverage by shot peening is required to achieve full benefit in terms of compressive residual stress magnitude and... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The goal of this work was to determine effects of shot peening (SP) coverage on the compressive residual stress magnitude, depth, and relaxation of residual stresses due to thermal exposure, as well... (View Full Article)
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
From this Article:
Corrosion, Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and corrosion fatigue failures of high strength aircraft aluminums are costly and potentially catastrophic material problems affecting the aircraft fleet... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
During the design process of a metallic component, applied stresses are generally determined using finite element analysis (FEA) to ensure the part can withstand the applied loads either in yielding... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The analysis of boiler scale water deposits is an important tool both for maintenance of power generation systems and for failure analysis. Loss of heat transfer efficiency, increased fuel... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking are primary failure mechanisms that reduce the structural integrity of aircraft. Conventional corrosion mitigation in aircraft involves coatings, alloy... (View Full Article)
(Coating Equipment)
From this Article:
Conventional approaches to mitigate corrosion related failure mechanisms in aircraft usually involve isolation from the corrosive environment via protective coatings, alloy substitution, or... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Two rectangular samples of ASTM SA 508 Class 2 steel, stress relieved and shot peened to 14-16A intensity, were examined in detail to determine the principal macroscopic residual stress distribution.... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
300M steel combines ultra high tensile strength with good fracture toughness, making it an excellent candidate for aircraft landing gear applications. However, like most high strength steels, 300M is... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The fitting of a parabola by least squares regression to the upper portion of diffraction peaks is commonly used for determining lattice spacing in residual stress measurement. When Ka techniques are... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A method of determining the axial, circumferential and radial residual stress distributions in cylindrical specimens is described. The axial and circumferential residual stresses are measured directly... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Compressive residual stresses are often deliberately induced in the surfaces of turbine engine components, using a variety of surface enhancement methods, to improve fatigue life. Thermal stress... (View Full Article)
(Contract Manufacturing and Fabrication)
From this Article:
The threat of high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure greatly increases the cost of inspection, maintenance, and operation of legacy turbine engines. As these components continue to age, the probability of... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Residual compressive stresses have been used for many decades to enhance the fatigue strength of critical metallic components.1-4 Shot peening (SP) or cold working processes are used on numerous... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
The deep stable layer of compressive residual stress produced by low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been demonstrated to improve the damage tolerance in engine alloys IN718, Ti-6Al-4V, and 17-4PH.... (View Full Article)
(Industrial Coatings and Sealants)
From this Article:
Orthopedic and dental implants consisting of a metallic substrate plasma-spray coated with hydroxylapatite (HA) are currently used in reconstructive surgery. The crystalline phases present in the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Accurate knowledge of the subsurface residual stress and hardness distributions is required for failure analysis, fatigue life prediction and process control of induction hardened components. X-ray... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
A brief overview of the theory and practice of x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement as applied to shot peened materials is presented. The unique ability of x-ray diffraction methods to... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Cold working of metals produces extensive dislocation networks within individual grains. The dislocation networks define "crystallites" which are nearly perfectly crystalline subgrains. As the percent... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
In x-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, the strain in the crystal lattice is measured, and the residual stress producing the strain is calculated, assuming a linear elastic distortion of the... (View Full Article)
(Calibration and Testing Services)
From this Article:
Alloy 600 penetrations in several pressurized water reactors have experienced primary water stress corrosion cracking near the partial penetration Jwelds between the Alloy 600 and the cladding on the... (View Full Article)

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