(Surge Suppressors)
From this Article:
The increasing usage of sensitive solid state devices in modern electrical systems, particularly computers, communications systems and military equipment, has given rise to concerns about system... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
This Note is an overview of the sources and nature of various transient overvoltages, and the problems that may result. Transients in electrical circuits result from the sudden release of previously... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Given that line cards are highly susceptible to transient voltages, network hazards such as lightning and power cross conditions pose a serious threat to equipment deployed at the central office and... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection)
From this Article:
Gases, petroleum products, and airborne dusts tend, by their very nature, to be explosive if sources of sparks or excess heat are present. Over the years, these hazards have led to some catastrophic... (View Full Article)
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
From this Article:
"If this relay wasn't there they were looking at up to 1 million dollars' worth of damage" - Tim Deschamp, Evans Enterprises. Download this real-life case study of an arc flash incident and how one... (View Full Article)
(Diodes)
From this Article:
The designers of automotive electronics face many technical challenges during the system design process, including designing methods of protection against a variety of electrical hazards. The three... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
In previous Technical Briefs, it was introduced that Littelfuse offers a family of ESD suppression technologies including ceramic MultiLayer Varistors (MLV's), silicon (SP72x SCR/Diode and SP05xx TVS... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
As cable providers enter the local exchange market, protection of CATV (Community Antenna TV) equipment becomes even more critical in order to ensure reliable operation of equipment and uninterrupted... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
As USB transmission speeds and communication baud rates between host and peripherals increase, the reliability and robustness of devices when exposed to circuit transients become more important. As... (View Full Article)
(Surge Suppressors)
From this Article:
AC power line disturbances are the cause of many equipment failures. The damage can be as elusive as occasional data crashes or as dramatic as the destruction of a power supply, computer terminal, or... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Littelfuse offers specific Varistors and Classes of Fuses to address over-voltage and over-current transients in the Industrial environment. This application area is typically characterized as AC... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
CPE is defined as any telephone terminal equipment which resides at the customer's site and is connected to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Telephones, modems, caller ID adjunct boxes,... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
In many office and industrial locations, data lines (such as RS-232 and ethernet) and AC power lines run in close proximity to each other, which often results in voltage spikes being induced onto the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs) are commonly used to suppress transients in many applications such as: Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors (TVSS), Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), AC Power Taps, AC... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
This application note discusses ESD and transient protection using the SP720. For a given level of voltage or power, there is a defined degree of protection compatible to that need. For the SP720, the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Ethernet products (PCI adapter cards, hubs/routers, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the Ethernet port. The ESD pulse can be introduced directly into the open... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
IEEE 1394 products (PCI adapter cards, hubs/routers, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the data port. The ESD pulse can be introduced directly into the open... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Universal Serial Bus (USB) products (PCI adapter cards, digital cameras, peripherals, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the data port. The ESD pulse can be... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Universal Serial Bus (USB) products (PCI adapter cards, digital cameras, peripherals, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the data port. The ESD pulse can be... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Integrated circuits (IC's) and application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) are manufactured with various levels of ESD protection incorporated into the silicon die itself.This protection... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
Data sheets for SCRs and triacs give vital information regarding maximum ratings and characteristics of thyristors. If the maximum ratings of the thyristors are surpassed, possible irreversible damage... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
The thyristor family of semiconductors consists of several very useful devices. The most widely used of this family are silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs), triacs, sidacs, and diacs. In many... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
Although the technology is over 50 years old, the current usage is still estimated to be around 3 billion units per year. These fuses remain popular because: * they are available anywhere in the... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The Gas Discharge Tube (G.D.T.) operates as a voltage dependent switch. When a voltage appears across the device which is greater than its breakdown voltage, known as the Sparkover Voltage, an arc... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
Gating, latching, and holding currents of thyristors are some of the most important parameters. These parameters and their interrelationship determine whether the SCRs and triacs will function... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Electronic systems are sensitive to both external and internal sources of overvoltage transients. This can be in the form of external Electro- Static Discharge (ESD) or internally generated Electrical... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
Ground faults can be dangerous. A short to ground in a solidly-grounded system creates large currents that can damage equipment and cause a shutdown. A ground fault can also create an arc flash, which... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
High speed transmission equipment encompasses a broad range of transmission protocols such as T1/E1, xDSL, and ISDN. transmission equipment is located at the central office, customer premises, and... (View Full Article)
(Transportation)
From this Article:
Since the 1960 fuses for Automotive applications are manufactured with zinc as their base material. Zinc has a good electrical conductivity and is more cost effective than copper. On the other hand,... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
The SP720, SP721, SP723, and SP724 are protection ICs with an array of SCR/Diode bipolar structures for ESD and over-voltage protection of sensitive input circuits. They have 2 protection SCR/Diode... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The purpose of the International Electrotechnical Commission lEC 1000-4 (previously known as lEC-801) standard is to establish a common reference for evaluating the performance of industrial-process... (View Full Article)
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
From this Article:
What is a Protection Relay? A protection relay is a smart device that receives inputs, compares them to set points, and provides outputs. Inputs can be current, voltage, resistance, or temperature.... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Littelfuse produces four families of multilayer suppressors: the ML, MLE, MLN and AUML. While much of the information presented here is generic to all four, this note focuses on the ML version. Modern... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
This note is meant to be a guide for the user in selecting a varistor by describing common application examples, and illustrating the solution process to determine the appropriate varisor. The note... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
A characteristic is an inherent and measurable property of a device. Such a property may be electrical, mechanical, or thermal, and can be expressed as a value for stated conditions. A rating is a... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Varistors are voltage dependent, nonlinear devices which have an electrical behavior similar to back-to-back zener diodes. The symmetrical, sharp breakdown characteristics shown in Figure 1 enable the... (View Full Article)
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
From this Article:
Current flowing to ground has only two paths-it can flow to ground through a ground fault, or it can flow to ground through distributed capacitance. Current flowing to ground through distributed... (View Full Article)
(Semiconductors)
From this Article:
Proper mounting and handling of semiconductor devices, particularly those used in power applications, is an important, yet sometimes overlooked, consideration in the assembly of electronic systems.... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
PBXs, KSUs, and PABXs contain line cards that support various transmission protocols such as ISDN, T1/E1, HDSL, and ADSL (Figure 3.46). PBXs also have features such as a POTS (plain old telephone... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
Due to high-volume production techniques, thyristors are now priced so that almost any electrical product can benefit from electronic control. A look at the fundamentals of SCR and triac phase... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
The Pin in Paste method, also called through-hole reflow technology, has become increasingly important during the past few years. Reaching a higher degree of automation with existing manufacturing... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Primary telecommunications protectors must be deployed at points where exposed twisted pairs enter an office building or residence. This requirement is mandated in North America by the National... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
This application note addresses the various requirements for protecting the Universal Serial Bus (USB) from overcurrent and over voltage environmental threats.The solutions presented cover both USB... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The CA and NA series of MOV varistor discs with silver electrodes are specifically designed for custom assembly and packaging. To take advantage of the excellent performance and reliability of... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Secondary protectors (stand alone units or integrated into strip protectors and UPSs) are adjunct devices used to enhance the protection level of customer premise equipment (CPE). Due to the... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
This document guides the reader about the typical steps involved with selecting a Littelfuse varistor to serve most applications.... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
According to OSHA, industrial Arc-Flash events cause about 80% of electrically related accidents and fatalities among qualified electrical workers. Even if personnel injuries are avoided, Arc Flash... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Littelfuse offers three device technologies for the suppression of ESD events and other EMC-related transients. These are the MultiLayer Metal Oxide Varistor, silicon (SCR/Diode Array and TVS... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
Medium voltage fuses are applied quite differently than fuses rated 600 volts and less. The biggest difference is that medium voltage fuses are not intended to provide overload protection. They should... (View Full Article)
(Transportation)
From this Article:
Some electrical loads draw the same current from the time they are turned on until the time they are turned off. But most vehicular loads exhibit inrush or starting surges that may reach many times... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
In recent years, electronic systems have migrated towards the manufacture of increased density circuits, with the same capability obtainable in a smaller package or increased capability in the same... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The purpose of this Application Note is to focus on customer concerns related to the fast switching characteristics of the SP720, SP721 and SP723 family of protection ICs during an ESD discharge. The... (View Full Article)
(Transportation)
From this Article:
This application note discusses suppression of transients in the automotive environment. The circuit designer must ensure reliable circuit operation in this severe transient environment. The... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Switch mode power supplies are becoming more common in electronic devices. Compared to conventional commercial power frequency transformers, they are more efficient and offer smaller footprints. This... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The Transient Voltage Suppressor diode (T.V.S.) is specifically designed to protect electronic circuits against transients and over voltages. It is a silicon avalanche device available in both... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The A2106UC6 surface mount SIDACtor® device provides asymmetrical protection for T1/E1 transceivers. Longitudinal events will be limited to voltage levels less than 250 volts and metallic events... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The capacitance across the pair of wires = ( D1 || D2 ) + P0640EC/SC. The diode capacitance is approximately (10 pF || 10 pF ) 20 pF. Then adding the capacitive effect of the P0640EC/SC, which is... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
The most important consideration in reliability is achieving a good solder bond between surface mount device (SMD) and substrate since the solder provides the thermal path from the chip. A good bond... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
This application note presents design tips and facts on the following topics: * Relationship of IAV, IRMS, and IPK * dv/dt Definitions * Examples of gate terminations * Curves for Average Current at... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
One of the many applications for Teccor thyristors is in fluorescent lighting. Standard conventional and circular fluorescent lamps with filaments can be ignited easily and much more quicklyby using... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
Since the SCR and the triac are bistable devices, one of their broad areas of application is in the realm of signal and power switching. This application note describes circuits in which these... (View Full Article)
(Semiconductors)
From this Article:
One of the most useful and versatile instruments for testing semiconductor devices is the curve tracer (CT). Tektronix is the best known manufacturer of curve tracers and produces four basic models:... (View Full Article)
(Surge Suppressors)
From this Article:
This guide is similar to "The ABCs of MOVs", offering specific information on Multilayer suppressor device technology and is intended to be a supplement to the Littelfuse Multilayer data sheets. As... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The material in this guide has been arranged in 3 parts for easy reference; Section A, Section B and Section C. "A" is for Applications This section provides general guidelines on what types of MOV... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) is the transfer of electrical charge between any two objects. A common example of this is the static shock that a person experiences after walking across a carpet and then... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
The importance of effective motor and motor circuit protection cannot be over emphasized. Motors are consistently the largest single cause of industrial and commercial fires, and in today's highly... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
The importance of effective transformer and control transformer protection cannot be over emphasized. After motors, transformers are typically the second most common application where proper... (View Full Article)
(Surge Suppressors)
From this Article:
There are two major categories of transient suppressors: a) those that attenuate transients, thus preventing their propagation into the sensitive circuit; and b) those that divert transients away from... (View Full Article)
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
There are two major categories of transient suppressors: a) those that attenuate transients, thus preventing their propagation into the sensitive circuit; and b) those that divert transients away from... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
A resistance-grounded power system has a critical element that is often ignored-the neutral-grounding resistor. A resistance-grounded power system should have it's neutral-grounding resistor... (View Full Article)
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
This note details the common tests of varistor parameters and describes suitable test methods using simplified test circuits. All tests are performed at 25 o C, unless otherwise specified. The test... (View Full Article)
(Circuit Protection Devices)
From this Article:
Grid-connected commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems are trending towards larger sizes, resulting in systems with higher bus voltage and current levels. Problems caused by ground faults are becoming a... (View Full Article)
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
From this Article:
A resistance-grounded power system has a critical element that is often ignored-the neutral-grounding resistor. A resistance-grounded power system should have it's neutral-grounding resistor... (View Full Article)