Technical Articles

Supplier:

Silverson Machines, Inc.


Silverson Machines, Inc. has published these technical articles:

(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Assay of products such as pharmaceutical suspensions and tablet coatings is a critical part of the Quality Assurance process. In some cases every batch of each product has to be tested, requiring 100%... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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The installation of a Silverson In-Line mixer has solved production problems for a major food processor. They manufacture products such as fish fingers and chicken nuggets in a continuous process.... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Surfactants such as Sodium Laureth Sulphate (SLES) are widely used in shampoo, bubble bath, liquid detergent and other cleansing products, and are traditionally supplied and used at a concentration of... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Carbomers such as Carbopol®* are water soluble vinyl polymers, used as emulsifying, stabilizing, suspending, thickening and gelling agents in many industries. They are widely used in manufacture... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Carbopol®* is a water soluble vinyl polymer, used as an emulsifying, stabilizing, suspending, thickening and gelling agent in many industries. Carbopol® is available in several different... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Ingredients such as propylene glycol alginate (PGA) may be added to beer to stabilize the foam head and to aid resistance to breakdown of foam in the presence of detergent residues or grease on the... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Before racking into containers most beer, particularly lager, is filtered to remove yeast and other solid matter in suspension. This reduces the storage period required to naturally clarify the beer... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Fumed Silica (also called colloidal silica) is a fluffy white powder with an extremely low density, marketed under trade names such as Aerosil® and Cab-o-sil®*. With both hydrophobic and... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Pectin is a polysaccharide obtained from a variety of fruits. It is used as a thickening and gelling agent in a wide range of foods, including jelly, jam, marmalade and other preserves. In a typical... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Bentonite is a naturally occurring aluminum silicate clay which can take up several times its own weight of water to form a highly thixotropic colloidal suspension or gel. The gel structure is derived... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is chemically inert and has exceptional opacity and whiteness. These properties have led to its widespread use in many industries. Titanium dioxide is most commonly supplied in... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Luboils, in common with most fluids, experience reduced viscosity at high operating temperatures.This results in a poorer hydrodynamic film and poorer lubrication. Heavier base oil can be used to... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Rubber solutions are used in a wide range of applications, including adhesives, sealants, paints, carpet backing compounds, tire compounds, etc. In addition to natural rubber, synthetic rubbers such... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Confectionery may require reclamation or reworking for a number of reasons; When high speed production lines stop because of a problem downstream, such as a fault in coating machines or a breakdown in... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Stabilizers and Emulsifiers make up only a small proportion of an ice cream mix (typically no more than 1%) but contribute a number of properties to the product: * Freeze-thaw stability. When... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Lipsticks consist of a pigment dispersed into a mixture of oils and waxes. The range of pigments and other raw materials permitted for use is strictly limited by regulatory authorities including the... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Baby milk or infant formula is primarily used as a substitute for human milk. Other uses include "Follow-up" products as a dietary supplement for older infants, and special formulations for specific... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Clouding agents are used in soft drink manufacture to give a more natural appearance to products with a low juice content; they can also mask sedimentation and "ringing" - where coloring/flavoring... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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A deodorant stops odor by killing skin bacteria with biocides and masking odor through fragrance. An antiperspirant reduces the amount of available water on the skin with astringents, most commonly... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Inks for bar coding, batch numbering, use-by date marking and other identification purposes are used in many industries especially pharmaceuticals and food. Viscosity is in the range of 2 to 30... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Contact lens solutions include different products which perform a range of functions including cleaning, disinfecting, lubrication and rinsing. Opthalmic solutions include safety eyewash and... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Pesticides can be categorized in to several groups - Fungicide, Herbicide, Insecticide etc. There are many different methods of application and use, and products are available in a number of... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Pharmaceutical tablets are given a coating for a number of reasons: * To improve the appearance and aid identification. * To protect the tablet from moisture and other adverse conditions. * To... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Shampoos are a mixture of surfactants, conditioning agents, and many other ingredients in an aqueous base. In addition to basic shampoos which simply clean the hair, there are products designed for... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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The formulation of sun tan creams is a complex science. Due to increased demand for higher sun protection factors (SPF), and restrictions on the use of some UV filters in cosmetics, manufacturing... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Sweetened condensed milk (SCM) is concentrated milk to which sugar has been added to act as a preservative. It differs from unsweetened evaporated milk, which is preserved by sterilization at high... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Tomato sauces are used in many products including frozen foods, pasta sauces and pizza toppings etc. A typical tomato sauce would be based on sieved or whole tomatoes, and/or tomato paste. It would... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Toothpastes are generally either white abrasive pastes or clear gels. Although the formulations differ, they are made from similar ingredients; these may vary from country to country according to... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Mayonnaise is an oil-in-water emulsion which can contain up to 80% oil. Gums and thickeners such as starches are used in low fat products to replace the viscosity and bulking effect of the oil, to... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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To respond to legislative and customer requirements, the pharmaceutical industry is having to demand ever increasing standards of hygienic construction in process equipment. This is applicable to all... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Nail varnish (also called nail polish or enamel) is a lacquer consisting of ingredients as illustrated in the table below. Varnishes are produced in a variety of colors and finishes such as clear,... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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A textile manufacturer was faced with a dramatic increase in demand for one of their most popular products which required spinning a second line of fiber. The existing equipment used to produce the... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Batter mixes are widely used as a coating for deep-fried foods and in many other products including cakes, doughnuts, waffles, pancakes, pancake rolls etc. When used as a coating the batter is... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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A number of functional ingredients are added to meat to act as preservatives, flavoring, coloring etc. These are generally dissolved into water to form a "brine" which is then injected into the meat.... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Drilling fluids (or drilling muds) have several functions, including carrying bore cuttings to the surface, cooling and lubricating the drill "string" and controlling subsurface pressures. A simple... (View Full Article)
(Material Handling and Packaging Services)
From this Article:
Ice cream mixes are formulated from either whole milk, skim milk, cream, or in some cases water, with a number of added ingredients (see table). In many countries, legislation covers the composition... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Lager beer is brewed using "bottom fermenting" yeast which sinks during fermentation. A storage period follows to ensure all the yeast has sunk to the bottom. Demands for a shorter storage period and... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Margarine is a blend of around 80% vegetable oil or animal fat, and 20% water with added salt, flavorings, color, and preservatives. In many countries these proportions are controlled by legislation.... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Mustards are made in a variety of forms, with various flavors and textures. They can however be divided into two basic categories: * Smooth mustards, which are normally made from finely ground mustard... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
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Paper coatings impart a variety of properties, both decorative (whiteness, opacity etc.) and functional (smoothness, absorption rate etc.) A typical coating has two principal constituents: a... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Most tinned dog and cat food is based on a slurry of meat or meat derivatives and cereals. Some products also contain fish. The slurry, which may be extruded, rolled or pressed into chunks, is then... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Yogurts (and other cultured milk desserts) are produced by fermentation of milk by the addition of certain types of bacteria, e.g. Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Generally a... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Aflatoxins are produced by various types of molds which can grow on foodstuffs such as pistachio nuts, peanuts, cereals, dried fruit etc. Much of the information in this report can also be applied to... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Automotive polishes are traditionally solvent based emulsions consisting of petroleum distillates, waxes and surfactants, produced in paste and liquid forms. Some formulations contain cutting agents... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Cosmetic creams and lotions are used for a variety of purposes such as cleansing and moisturizing. The ingredients of these will be different according to the desired use, however to some extent the... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Traditional cough mixtures are formulated around a syrup at 60-75% concentration which is made from sucrose, maltodextrin, glucose, invert syrup etc. The remainder is made up of thickening agents,... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Cream liqueurs are an emulsion of cream with an alcoholic spirit such as brandy, whisky, vodka, etc. which may be in highly concentrated form. Most products contain several other added ingredients... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Flavor Emulsions are used in a wide range of foods, carbonated soft drinks and dairy products. A typical flavor emulsion contains water, essential oils and emulsifiers and stabilizers such as gum... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Flavored milk drinks are available in many varieties. Viscosities range from that of whole milk, to "thick milkshake" products which achieve their viscosity through use of thickening additives,... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Pharmaceutical preparations for treatment of conditions such as rashes, skin irritation, stings, fungal infections etc. are normally supplied in the form of a cream or ointment as this provides an... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Polymer modified asphalt is increasingly used in road surfacing. Unmodified asphalt is sensitive to extremes in temperature, it becomes brittle and cracks in cold conditions and softens at higher... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
There are many products which could be described as salad dressings, including many sauces. There are further variations of low calorie or low fat sauces. Generally these are oil-in-water emulsions... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Polishes used for floors, furniture and shoes can be supplied in solid form. These are are an emulsion of water with waxes such as paraffin wax, beeswax or carnauba wax, plus other additives such as... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
The solid material obtained from filtration or centrifugation of a suspension is called filter cake. This usually contains 60% or more solids in aqueous or organic media. Materials sometimes extracted... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Edible oils obtained from coconut, corn, cottonseed, olive, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower etc. contain gums and other impurities which are removed by degumming, neutralizing and bleaching... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Ingredients such as gums, starches, alginates etc. are found in many soft drinks including fruit juices, concentrated juice drinks, flavored milks and carbonated drinks. These "functional" ingredients... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
"Low Calorie","Sugar-free", or "Diet" soft drinks are formulated with artificial sweeteners such as Aspartame,Acesulfame K and Saccharin. These ingredients are more expensive than the sucrose sugar... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
The sugar content of carbonated and still soft drinks varies considerably according to whether the product is to be supplied ready to drink, or as a concentrate (often referred to as a "syrup"). A... (View Full Article)
(Materials Processing Equipment)
From this Article:
Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide widely used for its thickening and stabilizing effect on emulsions and suspensions, particularly in the Food industry. It is also used in many chemical applications... (View Full Article)

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