Technical Articles

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XP Power


XP Power has published these technical articles:

(Temperature Sensing)
From this Article:
Thermocouples are considered to be accurate within ± 1°C but there are many traps to fall into. They may pick up electrical noise, they are relative, meaning that they need to be calibrated to a "cold... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Global applications require a power supply that can deal with not only a universal AC input, typically 90-264 Vac, but also meet the customerâ s lifetime expectations across all operating conditions.... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Power supplies marketed under the â Greenâ label are designed to maximise efficiency across the load range (average active mode efficiency) and minimise power consumed at no load. Active mode... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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Often in the commercial, industrial, medical and military industries, system engineers wait until system qualification before addressing critical functions for EMC and EMI compliance to relevant... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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The Power Management Bus (PMBus) is an open standard power-management protocol. This flexible and highly versatile standard allows for communication between devices based on both analog and digital... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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In harsh environments where a sealed enclosure is necessary, baseplate cooling is a simple and inexpensive solution to thermal management of power supplies, says Peter Blyth, XP Power. A new approach... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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If you are a power supply design engineer or an EE or ASE that selects power solutions for your end system, then there is no doubt you have stood at the cross roads and pondered the dilemma to go... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Many power supply products are marketed under the "Green Power" label meaning that they are designed to maximise efficiency across the load range (known as average active mode efficiency) and minimise... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Certifying a new product to relevant safety standards is an essential part of any design and development process. But faced with a myriad of standards, sometimes engineers need clarification regarding... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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This is especially true when environmental and regulatory issues add to the list of specification requirements. Even board-level dc/dc converter modules can be challenging to select, as factors such... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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There are many aspects to understanding how to design reliable products, but let's start by some explanation of the terminology used when describing reliability. Failure rate is defined as the... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Everywhere I go these days, I just seem to keep bumping into this somewhat purposeful phrase. It is certainly highly appropriate in my business, in which the mission is to strive for greater power... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Reducing the size and improving the efficiency of AC-DC power supplies are constant pressures. In addition the requirement for portability in some equipment means that not only the size but also the... (View Full Article)
(Medical)
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First published in 1977, the internationally accepted IEC 60601_1 standard has been continuously developed to help alleviate safety issues relating to all manner of medical equipment. The 3rd edition... (View Full Article)
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Digital signals and controls are in increasing demand in building management, telecommunications and networking applications. One of the main requirements is for intelligent microcontroller-based... (View Full Article)
From this Article:
Despite the best intentions at the outset of an electronic product's design, it's commonplace for the power supply specification to evolve during the process and to only be finalized later on. At this... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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Why is it that seemingly similar power supplies have significantly different performance and reliability characteristics? The answer may lie in the specification detail that can be missing from some... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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In an odd way power supplies are like insurance policies - you know you need one but it's not something you really want to think about. How your next electronic system functions is much more... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
From this Article:
Changes in power supply design are rarely revolutionary. Rather, they are evolutionary and dependent upon a host of component and manufacturing technologies that, for the most part, develop at a... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
From this Article:
Reliability is one of the most important factors that a designer needs to consider when specifying components or subsystems - particularly when the component in question is the power supply on which... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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Improvements in AC/DC power supply design are evolutionary, rather than revolutionary. It's easy to settle for tried-and-tested approaches because no one new design technique is likely to yield great... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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There can be few more critical applications for power supplies in electronic equipment than in the field of medical electronics. Medical equipment will often have lives dependent upon its reliable... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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The three basic topologies used in switching power supplies are buck, also known as forward, boost and buck-boost, also known as Flyback. All three topologies use the same three elements, transistor,... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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It is important to confirm the AC voltage, frequency, and phase when selecting a power supply as these differ from region to region. If more than the specified level of voltage is applied, the power... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
From this Article:
The major mechanisms by which lightning produces surge voltages are the following: * A direct lightning strike to an external circuit (outdoor) injecting high currents producing voltages by either... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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This document aims to give a summary of the requirements of the various bodies which currently define and regulate the no load power consumption and active mode (when a load is connected to the... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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This is only recommended with power converters specifically designed for parallel connection. A general comment is that it is much lower cost and causes far fewer problems to use a single power... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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The purpose of this Tech Note is to clear up a common misunderstanding about the measurement of power in alternating current (AC) circuits. Most people with electrical experience have heard that power... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
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The use of power supplies in harsh, remote environments brings with it many fundamental design issues that must be fully understood if long-term reliability is to be attained. For designers of... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
From this Article:
Power supplies are traditionally the last sub-system to be specified and the first to be needed for system prototype testing. They are also frequently impacted by late changes elsewhere in the system,... (View Full Article)
(Power Supply and Conditioning)
From this Article:
Most of us are familiar with the concepts of reliability and MTBF at a superficial level, without considering what lies behind the figures quoted and what significance should be attached to them. The... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Power supplies generate waste heat which has to be dissipated. They typically have either convection cooled or forced cooled ratings or, in some cases, both. Forced cooled power supplies may... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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The most important factor is good, careful design based on sound experience, resulting in known safety margins. Unfortunately, this does not show up in any predictions, since they assume a perfect... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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The size or power density of a power supply is a key criteria when selecting the optimum product for a given application. In applications where fans are not desirable due to noise or reliability... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
Does airflow direction matter in a power system? Absolutely!...well actually it depends. It depends on many factors and they all need to be considered at the beginning of the product design cycle.... (View Full Article)
(Capacitors)
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Capacitors are used for energy storage and filtering. As there are many types of capacitors, each type has its advantages and performs best for different applications. The composition of a capacitor... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Silicon carbide diodes have been around for some time now but have had little take-up in power supplies due to their relatively high cost. XP Power has recently adopted a silicon carbide (SiC) diode... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Whilst it is easy to discuss Energy Star and energy efficiency (meaning active efficiency and no load power) requirements of external power supplies with customers, it is harder to have a similar... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Fractional turn transformers are not a new idea but it's not a concept that appears to have been applied to AC/DC power supplies in the past. For multiple output power supplies in particular it offers... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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This Application Note was written to provide insight into the one time requirement for 'type' testing of power supplies by the safety agency or manufacturer. It will assist in the interpretation of... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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Ground is ground, right? In truth, there is no ideal ground, all ground paths have inductance, resistance and noise. Managing the various ground paths interfacing with a high voltage power supply... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
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I was having lunch with a customer that had been buying power supplies from me since the late 90's. We were talking about how power supply technology has advanced over the years notably in the area of... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
This circuit proposes a method to extend the hold-up time of a Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS), by adding capacitors in parallel to the internal bulk capacitor. Market forces require Switch Mode Power... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
AC/DC power supplies are commonly supplied in what is known by the industry as an open frame format. Open frame generally describes a product which is a PCB only construction, component power supply... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
Medical electronic equipment is getting smaller. Of course, this could be said of all electronic equipment but it is in medical area that the pressure for size and weight reduction is greatest. Not... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
Some power supplies specify a peak load capability to support loads that are higher than the nominal continuous power for short periods. In these applications the average power required is typically... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
While it's clear that reductions in size and improvements in efficiency are constant pressures in the design of AC/DC power supplies, the medical device market has some particular requirements that... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
Power supplies for use in home appliances or energy meters require different features from many other applications. An example of a typical metering application and the solution follows. A specific... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
The design of AC/DC power supplies is inevitably evolutionary, rather than revolutionary. It develops largely as a result of gradual improvements in semiconductors and passive component technologies... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
Safety is paramount wherever power supplies are used, but nowhere more so than in medical applications where even small parasitic leakage currents may compromise safety. First published in 1977, the... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
The drive for smaller power supplies goes hand in hand with a need for greater efficiency. There's a direct relationship here because the smaller the power unit, the smaller the area available for... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
All power supplies generate waste heat which has to be dissipated. The heating effect becomes greater as more components are squeezed into smaller spaces. The result of miniaturization is higher... (View Full Article)
(Medical)
From this Article:
The medical standard IEC60601-1 is mandatory for medical equipment and requires manufacturers to review the isolation system employed within their products. One of the more radical changes in the 3rd... (View Full Article)
(Power Supplies)
From this Article:
But you can pass it on. XP Power offers advice on power supply design, which could help with your next design. Gary Bocock, Technical Director, XP Power explains.... (View Full Article)