Guide to Glass "How To" Selection Process
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Guide to Glass - The Selection Process
Selecting Glass to Meet Requirements
Different types of glass possess different qualities depending upon their chemical makeup and how the glass was produced. Choosing the right glass for your application requires understanding the different physical properties each has.
Glass is measured by a variety of factors which greatly affect your choice of glass. The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is the expansion measurement of glass as temperature is raised. This is an important factor to consider when placing glass in a frame or mount since glass expands much less than most metals and plastics, and may cause breakage upon cooling, or affect the integrity of environmental seals. Thermal conductivity is the ability to conduct heat through the glass or away from the heat/light source. This is important when considering glass as a view port exposed to high temperatures or for high infrared applications. Each type of glass has a maximum operating temperature and thermal shock rating. These will guide the choice of glass depending on the amount of heat glass will withstand, and how it cools after the glass is subjected to rapid change in temperature. Glass may be strengthened to change these thermal properties by heat strengthening, heat tempering, or chemically strengthening.
There are several important measurements when determining the amount of light passing through glass. The refractive index determines how much a light wave is “bent” when entering or leaving the surface of the glass. This is important in producing certain optical devices or effects, such as lenses. The dispersion measures the separation of light into its component colors, such as a prism dispersing white light into a color band or a rainbow effect. Transmission measures the amount of light passing through the glass material. and its opposite. Specular reflection is a measure of the directional return of light from the surface. The absorption property is the amount of light energy converted to heat within the glass that is not transmitted nor reflected. Tinted materials will absorb more light than clear materials.
All soda-lime type glass and some borosilicate glass contain sodium or alkali metal ions. Prolonged exposure to liquids or vapor, such as water, will cause the sodium/alkali ions to migrate to the surface of the glass called sodium or alkali leaching. This can cause cloudiness or haze on the surface of the glass. Porous coatings may also incur this phenomenon, causing a disruption of the bond between the coating and the glass surface. In high humidity or critical surface applications, this must be considered when specifying the material. Placing a “barrier” coating, such as silicon dioxide, on the glass will limit the amount of reaction, or one can select special glass with little to no alkali content and high chemical resistance. The acid resistance and alkali resistance measure the time it takes to remove a layer of specified thickness for each test.
When choosing a glass for electrical or electronic applications, there are several characteristics to consider. The volume resistivity is the resistance in ohms between opposite faces of a centimeter cube of the glass tested. This is important when glass is used as an electrical insulator. The dielectric constant of a glass is the ratio of energy stored in a condenser with the glass as the dielectric, compared with the energy stored in the same condenser with air as the dielectric. This measures the ability of a glass to store electrical energy, and varies with the frequency of the voltage applied to the condenser. This is important when the glass is used as a substrate for electrical or electronic devices. Surface resistivity is the ratio of the potential gradient parallel to the current along its surface, to the current per unit width of the surface. This method is used to measure the conductivity of coated glass.
The mechanical properties of glass determine the amount of stress the glass can withstand. Stress is defined as the perpendicular force per unit area applied to an object, in a way that compresses (compressive stress) or stretches (tensile stress) the object. Non-strengthened glass materials have relatively low tensile strength yet high compressive strength. Therefore, most glass breakage is due to tensile stress failure. Mechanical properties are measured in a variety of ways; Modulus of Rupture (MOR) test measures the bending or flexural strength; Shear Modulus (modulus of rigidity) measures the stiffness or amount of shearing or twisting forces glass can withstand; Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) measures the hardness of glass; Density is the mass value per unit of volume specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the glass to the density of water .
Understanding Light & Color
Understanding how to control light and color requires understanding the light spectrum. Light is how we describe a form of electromagnetic energy that interacts with chemicals in the retina and generates an electrical impulse, giving rise to complex neural signals ending with the perception that we term sight. The amount of electromagnetic energy that is detected and viewable through the material is defined as the transmission of the glass.
Light is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. For glass purposes, we usually define light as that portion of the spectrum from the ultraviolet (UV) range through the visible range and then through the infrared (IR) range. Our eyes permit the discrimination of many individual wavelengths or combinations of wavelengths we call colors....More
Abrisa Technologies is a recognized global supplier of high quality, fabricated glass components, optical thin film coatings, and custom glass solutions for a wide variety of industries. From our US based Abrisa Industrial Glass fabrication facility in Santa Paula, CA and our ZC&R Coatings for Optics division in Torrance, CA we serve diverse industries such as microelectronics and displays, semiconductor, military, automotive, aerospace, medical, biomedical and scientific R&D. We provide custom specialty flat glass and coating products for applications such as: flat panel display, touch and gesture recognition; visible to IR imaging and surveillance; entertainment, indoor and outdoor lighting; advanced instrumentation; and photonics.