Reduce Slag Carryover Reliably

Featured Product from AMETEK Land

Reduce Slag Carryover Reliably in Steel Production
Steel slag, a molten liquid melt of silicates and oxides, is a normal occurrence during the steel-making process, but it is also an expensive and detrimental consequence. Slag is created by the separation of the molten steel from impurities inherent in iron ore and scrap metal.
Slag impurities degrade steel. For example, slag will pull phosphorous from iron and, if not removed, the phosphorus reverts back into the steel, lowering its quality. It also causes substantial wear and tear on the vessels involved.

When slag is carried over, it results in:

•Longer processing time
•High inclusion formation and steel cleanliness challenges
•Difficulty in ladle desulphurization
•Caster nozzle clogging
•Ladle refractory wear

While slag has use in the aftermarket in a variety of applications, its presence as a result of the steel-making process causes substantial time, expense and equipment damage. Until now, it has taken herculean efforts to remove slag. Now, based on recent advances in detection, slag is more reliably and effectively managed.

How Steel is Made
Steelmaking starts with iron in a furnace, the two most common furnace types being a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and an electric arc furnace (EAF). The two vary as follows:
Basic Oxygen Furnace
A basic oxygen furnace is a refractory-lined and tiltable converter. When steel is made within a basic oxygen furnace, molten iron and scrap are heated and oxygen is then blown through nozzles into the charge via a water-cooled oxygen lance. The BOF is able to rotate, enabling it to charge raw materials and fluxes that are used to remove impurities. It also allows it to sample the melt and pour the steel and slag out of the furnace. The oxygen converts the pig iron, which accounts for approximately 94 percent of the volume; the remaining six percent is composed of impurities including manganese, carbon and silicon. By the end of the steel-making process, steel made via BOF will have impurity levels of approximately one percent.
In the basic oxygen process, hot liquid blast furnace metal, scrap and fluxes, consisting of lime and dolomitic lime, are charged to a furnace. A lance is lowered into the converter and high-pressure oxygen is injected. The oxygen combines with and removes the impurities in the charge. These impurities include gaseous carbon monoxide, silicon, manganese, phosphorus and liquid oxides that combine with lime and dolomitic lime, forming steel slag. At the end of the refining operation, the liquid steel is tapped (poured) into a ladle and the steel slag remains in the vessel and is subsequently tapped into a separate slag pot.

The steel-making steps in a BOF include:

• Charging the scrap
• Adding pig iron to the furnace
• Charging the fluxes
• Oxygen blowing
• Sampling
• Tapping
• Ladle refining
• De-slagging

The molten steel is removed from the furnace when the steel is at its optimal consistency, and it is removed through the tapping hole. During the process of manufacturing the steel, the tapping hole remains plugged to keep heat from escaping the furnace. read more......

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AMETEK LAND are specialists in the design and manufacture of monitors and analysers for industrial infrared non-contact temperature measurement, combustion efficiency and environmental pollutant emissions.

Infrared Temperature Measurement
AMETEK Land (Land Instruments International) is the world leader in the design and application of infrared temperature measurement for industry. AMETEK Land is known as both innovators and manufacturers of high quality precision radiation thermometers and thermometer systems; AMETEK Land's position is unrivalled with over 60 years experience in temperature measurement. Land products are used extensively in applications as diverse as steel, glass, electronics, mineral processing, power generation, utility and aircraft gas turbines, and a wide range of other industries. Ongoing development creates products for new applications and the continuous improvement of an expanding product range

Infrared temperature measurement product range includes:
• Fixed, on-line thermometers and systems – for process control and product quality
• Portable infrared thermometers – for spot measurements
• Process thermal imagers – for asset management and process control
• High Resolution, infrared scanners for fast moving materials
• Calibration Furnaces


Quality is an integral part of the AMETEK Land philosophy, where all levels of management and employees are responsible for the quality of their work, to ensure complete customer satisfaction. Quality, traceability and overall service remain the highest priority at LAND. The Quality Management System at AMETEK Land Instruments International is approved to ISO 9001. With the recognition of accuracy as the foundation of good product design - the AMATEK Land laboratory was the first, in 1970, to be accredited for the issue of calibration certificates for thermal measurements. Again in 2001 LAND were the first to meet the requirements of ISO 17025 - and remains one of the world's leading calibration laboratories today.

Combustion & Environmental Monitoring
Our Combustion & Environmental section specialises in the design, manufacture and marketing of combustion and environmental monitoring instrumentation. Pioneered by an initial interest in the efficiency of coal fired combustion processes, serious development of CO monitors soon established Land Instruments International as world leaders in this field.

Additional expertise was gained with the development of sophisticated plant safety equipment in the form of mill fire detection systems. With the recent increase in environmental concerns, the company has continued to develop and produce a range of high quality environmental gas analysers for monitoring and complying with worldwide legislation. Land are true specialists in their field, constantly innovating to provide instruments and systems with the highest performance and reliability. Most LAND products for environmental emissions applications carry both European certifications in the form of MCerts and TÜV approval. Our products are designed to meet the requirements of the latest European standards such as EN-15267 parts 1, 2 and 3 plus QAL-1 compliance.

Combustion and environmental monitoring product range includes:
• Combustion efficiency monitors – for industrial boiler efficiency and control
• Stack Gas Emissions Analyzers – to meet environmental regulations in the UK
• Dust and Particulate Monitors – to meet compliance and non-compliance environmental applications
• Portable Gas Analyzers – spot checks of efficiency and pollutant emissions
• Coal fire detection systems – for grinding mills, silos, stockyards and conveyors

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Instrumentation at a Glance

View our webinar 'Fundamentals of Non-contact Temperature Measurement'where we will introduce the fundamentals of non-contact temperature measurement. What industrial processes benefit from these kinds of measurement and why this technology can be advantageous? Many examples are discussed and comparisons with other temperature measurement methods are shown.

Implement Calibration and Certification Accreditation for a Competitive Advantage
By implementing proven procedures that are backed by certified and calibrated instrumentation, companies distance themselves from their competition, and are in a better position to win contracts.

The What, Why and How of Opacity Measurement 
Opacity is a measure of light attenuation, the fraction of light lost in crossing the stack. An opacity monitor is used to measure the optical characteristics of the stack gas.