Pyrolytic Graphite for Ion Implantation

Featured Product from MINTEQ® International Inc, Pyrogenics Group

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Benefits of Pyrolytic Graphite
Pyrolytic graphite ion grids offer major benefits for ion implantation applications relative to alternative materials such as molybdenum and other graphite-based infiltrated material. Pyroid pyrolytic graphite offers:
Lowest erosion rate of any material

Customer Benefit: Ion impact erosion of the ion optics (i.e., the grids) is the primary mechanism limiting the life of the ion grids. The erosion of the grid eventually weakens it to the point that the grid fails and breaks causing unnecessary and costly production down time Ion grids of pyrolytic graphite offer low erosion potential, which provides longer life and more precise beam focus. Our grids can lower maintenance and decreases production down time, thereby saving costs.

Pyroid pyrolytic graphite beam line components offer high temperature stability, plasma, and chemical erosion resistance for ion milling machines and semiconductor etching cathodes.

Ion Implant Applications:

  • Ion Implantation Grids
  • Wafer Trays
  • Electrodes for Plasma Etch
  • Boats
  • Crucibles
  • Susceptors
  • Brazing and glass-to-metal sealing jig


Near zero coefficient of thermal expansion
Pyroid pyrolytic graphite has a coefficient of thermal expansion of essentially zero. Temperature gradient effects on the ion grids are negligible.

Customer Benefit: Near zero thermal expansion means the grids maintain their relative spacing across a range of temperature and energy settings. This translates into more precise control for depositing dopant atoms into the substrate.

• Single crystal structure (versus material with grains)

Customer Benefit: The theoretical density of monocrystalline graphite is 2.26 g/cm3. The density of highly pure pyrolytic graphite is 2.23 g/cm3 which is greater than any known graphite due to its single crystal structure. This means that there is no porosity due to ash contamination in the material that degrades the structure. This porosity is found in even purified isostatically pressed fine-grained graphite material

In addition pyrolytic graphite offers:

  • High purity > 99.999%
  • Stability at high temperature and vacuums
  • Extreme resistance to thermal shock


Pyroid pyrolytic graphite offers superior physical properties.
• Zero porosity

Customer Benefit: Zero porosity translates into little or no outgassing of contaminants and no structure capable of trapping contaminants that can alter the dopant effect on the implantation.

Technical Papers

About Minteq
Minteq, the premier supplier of engineered refractory lining systems, manufactures monolithic refractories for the iron, steel, non-ferrous metals, minerals processing and glass markets. Combined with our application systems and measurement innovations, Minteq products and systems help manufacturers increase productivity and lower overall costs. Minteq offers comprehensive, customized, and integrated refractory systems that include superior monolithic products, proprietary application equipment, patented laser measurement devices, and the extensive experience and expertise of our service teams.

Minteq refractory materials, systems and technologies lead the industry because of our significant commitment to research and development. The resulting innovations are the keys to our success and to our customers' success. We provide turnkey solutions to help you increase productivity enhance yields, reduce downtime, and lower overall costs.

Minteq has the expertise to design, install and maintain a customized solution for your unique challenge. We welcome the opportunity to consult with you and uncover methods for improving your productivity, creating value, and lowering overall costs to enhance your competitiveness in the global marketplace