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  • HEPA Filters: What is Yours Actually Doing?
    It is common knowledge that to have a clean environment inside a biosafety cabinet or clean bench, you have to have HEPA-filtered air. Presumably, the filter removes all contaminants, but does it really? How does a HEPA filter work? Are all HEPA filters created equal?
  • Handling, Installation and Burn-off Procedure for HEPA Filters
    HEPA Filter = High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter. High means 99.97% or higher. The efficiency is a measure of how effectively the filter traps particles. It is calculated by dividing the number of particles trapped by the total number impinging on the filter. Fewer than 3 in 10,000 are allowed
  • MICRO: Defect/Yield Analysis - Kumar (January 2001)
    and witness wafer sampling was carried out to assess the types and levels of contaminants in the cleanroom air. Because the problem started shortly after HEPA filters had been replaced, outgassing from these filters was suspected. To confirm this hypothesis, tests were conducted to determine if volatile
  • Improving Energy Efficiency in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Operations Part II: HVAC, Boilers and Cogeneration
    and efficiency. High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and Ultra Low Penetration Air (ULPA) filters are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to filter make-up and recirculated air. The adoption of alternative filter technologies might allow for lower energy consumption. For example, new
  • MICRO:Extreme Silicon by Michael G. Harrison p.83 (June '99)
    particles moving through the HEPA and ULPA filters in cleanroom and minienvironment air supplies rub against the filter media, they generate a triboelectric surface charge. These charged particles are then attracted to surfaces with the opposite charge, which can quickly cause process equipment, wafer

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