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  • pH Tech Tips (.pdf)
    The Concentration ratio of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) determine the pH value of a solution. Any hydrogen activity will produce a 59.16 mV/ pH unit across the glass membrane. The measurement is expressed on a scale of 0.0 to 14.0. Water with a pH of 7 is considered neutral (H+ ions
  • Waterbased Metalworking Fluids: Proper Mixing Practices
    concentration is correct. The concentration can be measured with a CIMCOOL Refractometer, CIMCHEK TM test strips or a chemical titration method. Concentration may be expressed as a percentage or as a ratio of the amount of metalworking fluid concentrate to the total volume of mix. Example: Adding 4
  • Silver in Photographic Fixing Solutions
    (s204). However, the ratio of free to complexed silver is constant. The standard addition method of analysis allows the original sample concentration of silver to be determined without a calibration curve.
  • New analysis methods for digester management
    reject, and low yield. Alkali/wood ratio is one of the most important control variables and a powerful means of stabilizing cooked pulp quality. Disturbances in alkali/wood ratio may be caused by many factors, such as changes in white liquor concentration. However, traditional laboratory measurements
  • Metalworking Fluid Terms
    is the percentage of CIMCOOL metalworking fluid concentrate in your mix. The concentration can also be expressed as a ratio, the amount of metalworking fluid concentrate to the total volume of mix. Example: Adding four gallons of concentrate to 96 gallons of water yields a 4% or 1:25 mix concentration
  • Why Measure Conductivity?
    +) and a negative chlorine ion (Cl-) in solution with water. The presence of these ions allows the solution to conduct electricity - the higher the concentration of ions, the greater the conductivity. Thus, a measurement of the solution a s conductivity gives a reliable clue to the concentration
  • Examining ZiNi Alloys and Post Plate Fabrication
    mole ratio and the secondary brightener concentration.
  • Shoulder-Fillet Stresses Finesse
    FEA reveals shoulder fillets under unanticipated stress. * Peterson's stress concentration factors for shaft shoulder fillets underpredict by 24% * FEA results for the fillets can be represented by curves or a design equation. "How linear FEA helps in fatigue analysis " (Machine Design, Jan. 6

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