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  • Transformer Theory
    A transformer is an energy transfer device. It has an input side (primary) and an output side (secondary). Electrical energy applied to the primary is converted to a magnetic field which in turn, induces a current in the secondary which carries energy to the load connected to the secondary
  • The Importance of Effective Transformer and Control Transformer Protection (.pdf)
    The importance of effective transformer and control transformer protection cannot be over emphasized. After motors, transformers are typically the second most common application where proper overcurrent protection is required and utilized to provide the necessary protection to facilities
  • Current Transformer Overview
    A current transformers (CT) is a device that can detect a current through a wire passing through its center. This wire constitutes a one-turn primary for the transformer, and the winding on the CT constitutes the secondary of the transformer.
  • The Secrets of Transformer Cooling
    As our transformer fleet continues to age, caring for these units requires a high level of expertise. This is due to the level of complexity of the cooling systems and subsystems involved. In order to help you better understand how you can maintain your own systems, I will explain maintenance tips
  • Transformer Basics (.pdf)
    There is more than meets the eye in the insulation employed in transformers. Among the. design and construction considerations are temperature and voltage ratings. To those unfamiliar with transformer manufacturing, terms such as fish, kraft, natural fiber and gum might sound like the main
  • Wideband Transformer Characteristics
    After deciding which of the configurations is required, major characteristics of wideband transformers are: Input and Output Impedances. Impedances are determined by the source and load impedances to be interfaced by the transformer. Inasmuch as the transformer is essentially a loss less device
  • 3-phase Transformer
    The model presented here is the simulated results of the ohmic losses and flux density of a 3 phase transformer with a three limbed paramagnetic core ( µ_p˜8.0412×?10?^(-3) N/A^2 ). The symmetry in the z-axis has been used to minimize the problem size and accelerate solution time. The coils
  • Current Transformer Measurements
    The Current Transformer (CT) is used to sense AC current in single-phase or three-phase mains circuits. The CT typically has a 1A or 5A AC secondary that connects to a current, power or energy meter. This allows the meter to be located away from the mains wiring. CTs are available in a variety
  • Measuring Transformer Distributed Capacitance
    This article is a general discussion of distributed capacitance, Cd, in transformers with emphasis on measurement. We will discuss how capacitance occurs, references to formula for calculating, how capacitance is modeled, how Cd is measured (with three cautionary notes) and guidelines to aid
  • Transformer Design for Charging Defibrillator Capacitors
    transformer design phase for charging a capacitor in a stated time. The procedure presented eliminates "cut and try" or over-design approaches. Selection of critical values can be made with confidence using the guidance provided. First a little background in flyback topology. Flyback topology has
  • Compact and High Power Transformer Solution
    Wind turbines require a compact and high power transformer solution in order to provide the maximum output with the smallest weight. In the past most wind turbines which had on board transformers utilised cast resin technology. However, increases in power ratings and higher voltages have meant
  • Transformer Inrush Current - Use an NTC Thermistor
    A transformer draws inrush current that can exceed saturation current affecting the magnetic property of the core. This happens even if the transformer is on no load with its secondary open. The magnitude of the inrush current depends on the instant on the AC wave at which the transformer
  • Power Transformer Installed Underground in an Environmentally Sensitive Location
    In 2002 Vattenfall AB identified a need for a new transformer for their underground hydropower station Stalon, located between Lake Malgomaj and Lake Kultsjön by the Ångermanälven River in northern Sweden. There were certain issues that meant a mineral oil transformer was not a desirable option.
  • MIDEL 7131 Brings Wet Transformer Back to Life
    DML had a 30 year old free breathing mineral oil distribution transformer located indoors within the dockyard. It had become extremely wet, with core insulation readings by Megger test of <20MO. Oil testing showed that the transformer had very wet insulation; the mineral oil water content was 51ppm
  • Current-Sense Transformer Application Design Guidelines
    The standard for precise current measurement in instrumentation and other high reliability equipment applications has been the current sense transformer. They are accurate, easy to implement, and reliable under harsh environmental and thermal conditions. In electronic systems applications
  • Breakdown analysis of a power transformer terminal lead
    For dielectric breakdown analysis, a common procedure is applied which is based on obtaining the field data from FE electrostatic field analyses. This article uses the simulation of a shielding ring and terminal lead of a typical power engineering transformer as an example.