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  • Determination of Water Hardness
    Originally the hardness of water was defined as the capacity of water for destroying the lather of soap. The hardness was determined by a titration with a standard soap solution. Metal ions including have the ability to cause hardness. However, today water hardness means the total calcium
  • Nanofiltration and Membrane Degassing Successfully Reduce Water Hardness and Excess CO2 from Drinking Water
    Municipal water services continually utilize improved technologies so that they can offer their customers higher water quality. Water can be improved by partially softening the water, which results in lower detergent consumption and lower scaling on kitchen utensils and water fittings.
  • Determination of Calcium in Water
    Calcium, when complexed with carbonate, contributes to the total water hardness. Calcium is typically introduced to ground water as it passes over limestone, gypsum, gypsiferrons, shale or dolomite. Carbon Dioxide from the air dissolves in waster causing calcium carbonate. Small concentrations
  • Pharmaceutical Application for Water Activity (.pdf)
    Knowledge of the water activity of pharmaceutical solids (proteins, drugs, and excipients) is essential to obtain a solid dosage form with optimal chemical, physical, microbial and shelf-life properties. Water activity (aw) influences the chemical stability, microbial stability, flow properties
  • Residue
    deposits are likely to occur. Such deposits, called residue, can plate out on hard surfaces in direct contact with the circulating fluid. The presence of tramp oil, rust preventatives and insoluble soaps due to water hardness or dissolved metals (such as iron or aluminum) lead to this type of residue
  • Improving Control of the Extrusion Spheronization Process
    . The physical properties of two types of commercial MCC showed differences during the step of moistening, thereby affecting the particle size and hardness of the pellets obtained The most commonly used granulating liquid is water, although in some cases the use of alcohol or a water-alcohol mixture
  • Putting Q6A to the Test: Upon Dissection, Guidance Needs an Update
    for immediate release products. c) Hardness/friability: It is normally appropriate to perform hardness and/or friability testing as an in-process control (see section 2.3). This property was important when sugar coating tablets with a water matrix. There is no specific reason not to perform this test
  • A2LA Guide for the Estimation of Uncertainty for Testing
    The purpose of measurement is to determine a value of a quantity of interest (the measurand). Examples of measurands include the boiling point of water under 1 atmosphere of pressure, or the Rockwell hardness of a metal specimen, or the tensile strength of a plastic compound, or the length

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