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  • Determination of Water Hardness
    Originally the hardness of water was defined as the capacity of water for destroying the lather of soap. The hardness was determined by a titration with a standard soap solution. Metal ions including have the ability to cause hardness. However, today water hardness means the total calcium
  • Nanofiltration and Membrane Degassing Successfully Reduce Water Hardness and Excess CO2 from Drinking Water
    Municipal water services continually utilize improved technologies so that they can offer their customers higher water quality. Water can be improved by partially softening the water, which results in lower detergent consumption and lower scaling on kitchen utensils and water fittings.
  • Determination of Calcium in Water
    Calcium, when complexed with carbonate, contributes to the total water hardness. Calcium is typically introduced to ground water as it passes over limestone, gypsum, gypsiferrons, shale or dolomite. Carbon Dioxide from the air dissolves in waster causing calcium carbonate. Small concentrations
  • Future Directions in Water Soluble Polymers for Detergent Applications
    by interacting with nonionic surfactants by various mechanisms. Another is to substitute sulfonic acid groups for carboxylic acid groups. By adjusting the amount and type of the sulfonic acid, the polymers show improvements such as increase water hardness ion tolerance, improved surfactant
  • Produced Water Recovery at Seneca Resources Using Short Bed Ion Exchange
    . exchange softener that is regenerated with salt. The water being treated has a TDS level of 4,000 -. 7,000mg/L. The specified target hardness level in the treated stream is <1ppm. In actual service the ion. exchange softener is consistently producing water with a hardness level <0.5ppm. Some novel
  • Pharmaceutical Application for Water Activity (.pdf)
    Knowledge of the water activity of pharmaceutical solids (proteins, drugs, and excipients) is essential to obtain a solid dosage form with optimal chemical, physical, microbial and shelf-life properties. Water activity (aw) influences the chemical stability, microbial stability, flow properties
  • Novel ion-exchange system softens produced water for steam generation
    Alternating between weak and strong cation exchange, the produced-water treatment system reduced hardness to less than 1 mg/L without the use of hazardous acid and caustic for softener. regeneration, for Seneca Resources in California.
  • Residue
    deposits are likely to occur. Such deposits, called residue, can plate out on hard surfaces in direct contact with the circulating fluid. The presence of tramp oil, rust preventatives and insoluble soaps due to water hardness or dissolved metals (such as iron or aluminum) lead to this type of residue

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