HEPA Filters and ULPA Filters Information


High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and ultra-low particulate air (ULPA) filters are air filters designed to trap a vast majority of very small particulate contaminants from an air stream.hepa filters and ulpa filters selection guide


HEPA Basics


Definition and Efficiency


Air filters must satisfy certain standards of efficiency — most commonly those developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) — in order to qualify as a HEPA filter. The US standard (DOE-STD-3020-2005) requires that a HEPA filter be capable of removing 99.97% of contaminant particles 0.3 μm in diameter. Most standards also specify that HEPA filters must feature minimal pressure drop and maximum airflow when in operation.


A filter's percent efficiency can be calculated using the simple equation below.





E = percent efficiency

D = downstream concentration (of contaminants)

U = upstream concentration (of contaminants)


Particle Size and Filtration Methodhepa filters and ulpa filters selection guide


While the US HEPA standard usage of 0.3 micrometer particles to describe efficiency may seem arbitrary, particles of this size are actually the most difficult to filter, rendering them a kind of "worst-case scenario" reference particle. The reasons for this difficulty in filtration are described below.


HEPA filter media is made up of countless randomly-arranged fibers which together form a dense mat; when air flows through the filter, the media captures and contains contaminant particles throughout its depth.


hepa and ulpa filters selection guide

A fibrous filter's media as seen through an electron microscope.

Image credit: ECAT


Filter fibers trap contaminants using three primary methods:


  • Interception takes place when a contaminant particle passes within the distance equal to one particle's radius of a filter fiber, resulting in it touching the fiber and being removed from the airflow. Particles further than one particle radius from a fiber will not be trapped.
  • Inertial impaction occurs when a large particle, unable to adjust to the change in air direction near a filter fiber, becomes trapped on the fiber. The particle's inertia ensures that it continues along its original path instead of circumventing the fiber, resulting in its capture.
  • Diffusion relies on the Brownian motion of gas particles. Small particles (typically 0.1 μm or less) tend to travel on a streamline in an erratic fashion, making random motions as they interact with gas molecules. This erratic motion causes the contaminant particles to become stuck to filter fibers.


hepa and ulpa filters selection guide

The three filtration methods described above (plus an electrostatic method).

Image credit: Totobobo


Understanding these three methods makes it clear why particles around 0.3 micrometers are most difficult to filter. Particles less than 0.1 micrometers are easily trapped due to diffusion while particles larger than 0.4 micrometers are trapped by inertial impaction. Particles between 0.1 and 0.4 μm are therefore too large for effective diffusion and too small for inertial impaction and efficient interception, so that the filter's efficiency drops within this range. By specifying a HEPA filter's efficiency at 0.3 μm, standards bodies are really describing a variant of the filter's minimum efficiency.


hepa and ulpa filters selection guide

A HEPA performance graph, showing the steep drop in efficiency around 0.1 μm.

Image credit: Berriman




While HEPA products designed for industrial, military, and government applications are explicitly certified, some cheaper consumer air purifiers and filters are marketed as "HEPA-type" and are often touted as capable of "removing 99.97% of dust and allergens" without specifying particle size. The growth of these marketing devices has led some manufacturers to use the term "True HEPA" to describe filters and purifiers manufactured and tested to DOE or EN standards.


ULPA Basics


Ultra-low particulate (or sometimes "penetration") air (ULPA) filters are closely related to HEPA filters but are even more efficient. ULPA filters are specified to remove 99.999% of contaminants 0.12 μm or larger in diameter. The chart below shows the overlap in the capabilities of ULPA and HEPA filters.


hepa and ulpa filters selection guide

Image credit: Sentry Air Systems



European Standards for HEPA and ULPA


The European Union standard for both HEPA and ULPA filters — EN 1822 — classifies filters into different classes depending on their efficiency. All EN 1822 specifications are based on a filter's ability to trap and contain the most penetrating particle size (MPPS) particular to the filter. The MPPS is typically determined by a laser spectrometer or electrostatic classifier.


European filter classes and relevant specs are listed in the table below. Note the radical difference between the European and American definition of HEPA efficiency, particularly that the EU standard permits HEPA filters with efficiencies as low as 85%.



Filter type

Percentage efficiency at MPPS






≥ 95



≥ 99.5



≥ 99.95



≥ 99.995



≥ 99.9995



≥ 99.99995



≥ 99.999995


Table source: AAF International  


There are several types of HEPA and ULPA filters. As aforementioned they can be classified to a standard class based on efficiency, but they are also subdivided by the construction of the filters itself. Some of the most common construction types include the following:                                

Box / Rigid cell filter – These filters are composed of either a box or rigid cell that is filled with filter media.    

Cartridge filter – These filters have a cylindrical housings that contains a fabric or paper filter cartridge. The cartridge is typically replaceable.

Fan filter – Filters made from fiberglass or mesh-type materials and are designed to prevent the accumulation of lint and other large particles around the motor and fan.

Filter mat – Filters made of fibers that trap particles entrained in the flow of air or gas. Common configurations include bulk rolls, pads, and re-loadable frames.

Panel filter – Filters that are typically made of fiberglass or mesh-type materials. They are designed to prevent the accumulation of lint and other large particles in and around heating and ventilation systems.      

Pre-filter – Filters positioned before the main filter in a filtration system. These filters reduce particulate loading in the system and allow the filter to operate more efficiently due to lighter particulate loading. 



HEPA and ULPA filters are used in applications requiring very efficient filtering of airborne pathogens which can cause aggravate asthma and cause allergies or disease. These filters are also useful in manufacturing environments which require very clean air. Some applications include:


  • Airline cabin air purifiers
  • Biomedical air filtration
  • Electronics manufacturing
  • Pharmaceutical manufacturing
  • Vacuum cleaner filters




Standards are particularly important to the manufacturing, use, and testing of HEPA and ULPA filters. The standards listed below are commonly referenced.


  • IEST RP-CC001  -- HEPA and ULPA filters
  • IEST-RP-CC007 -- Testing ULPA filters
  • ASTM F1471 -- Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System 



Camfil - A science-based approach to selecting air filters


John Larzelere - New and novel technologies in particulate filtration


Image credit: N.R. Murphy Ltd. | ProVent 



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