From Structure, Properties, and Applications of Various Alloys

Purpose of Making Alloys

Pure metals possess few important physical and metallic properties, such as melting point, boiling point, density, specific gravity, high malleability, ductility, and heat and electrical conductivity. These properties can be modified and enhanced by alloying it with some other metal or nonmetal, according to the need.

Alloys are made to:

  • Enhance the hardness of a metal: An alloy is harder than its components. Pure metals are generally soft. The hardness of a metal can be enhanced by alloying it with another metal or nonmetal.

  • Lower the melting point: Pure metals have a high melting point. The melting point lowers when pure metals are alloyed with other metals or nonmetals. This makes the metals easily fusible. This property is utilized to make useful alloys called solders.

  • Enhance tensile strength: Alloy formation increases the tensile strength of the parent metal.

  • Enhance corrosion resistance: Alloys are more resistant to corrosion than pure metals. Metals in pure form are chemically reactive and can be easily corroded by the surrounding atmospheric gases and moisture. Alloying a metal increases the inertness of the metal, which, in turn, increases corrosion resistance.

  • Modify color: The color of pure metal can be modified by alloying it with other metals or nonmetals containing suitable color pigments.

  • Provide better castability: One of the most essential requirements of getting good castings is the expansion of the metal on solidification. Pure molten metals undergo contraction on solidification. Metals need to be alloyed to obtain good castings because alloys expand...

Products & Services
Lead, Tin, and Low Melting Alloys
Lead, tin, and low melting alloys are non-ferrous alloys that are easily meltable with relatively low melting temperatures. They are used in the manufacture of solders, semiconductors, batteries, optical, and decorative products.
Titanium and Titanium Alloys
Titanium and titanium alloys are non-ferrous metals with excellent corrosion resistance, fatigue properties, and a high strength-to-weight ratios.
Master Alloys and Alloying Additives
Master alloys and alloying additives are alloy element concentrates, grain refiners, hardeners, deoxidants and other agents added into a melt or metal powder blend to produce a particular alloy, modify a melt or alter processing characteristics.
Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys
Tungsten and tungsten alloys are refractory metals or alloys with a very high melting point and high density.
Ferrous Metals and Iron Alloys
Ferrous metals and alloys are iron-based materials that are used in a wide variety of industrial applications.

Topics of Interest

Preparation of Alloys There are four commonly employed methods for the manufacture of alloys: the fusion method, the electro-deposition method, the reduction method, and powder metallurgy. The...

Tin is characterized by a low-melting point (450°F), fluidity when molten, readiness to form alloys with other metals, relative softness, and good formability. The metal is nontoxic, solderable,...

5 Titanium and Its Alloys Titanium is a transition metal that is readily able to form solid solutions with elements whose atoms lie within about 20% of the size of the diameter of titanium atoms.

Precious metals may seem unlikely as engineering materials, but the same expensive metals used for coinage and jewelry also satisfy applications requiring the ultimate in corrosion resistance or...

Glossary A-B AGING A process of change in the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Aging takes place over a period of time at room temperature, but it occurs more quickly at higher...