From Electromechanical Design Handbook, Third Edition


The casting of metals and alloys is an important branch of the metalworking industry and of prime importance to the electromechanical design engineer. Castings allow parts to be made at a rapid pace, with controlled accuracy, using a large variety of metals and alloys. Castings replace machined parts which would otherwise be difficult or impossible to machine and very costly to manufacture. At the same time, it should be noted that castings cannot replace many types of machined parts due to material, configuration, stress requirements, dynamics, and other physical considerations. There are many types or processes used in the casting or foundry industries to produce cast parts in different materials and for various dimensional accuracy requirements. The casting processes or methods that are in use today include

  1. Sand casting

  2. Shell casting

  3. Carbon dioxide casting

  4. Fluid sand casting

  5. Composite mold casting

  6. Plaster mold casting

  7. Slush casting

  8. Evaporative pattern casting (EPC)

  9. Die casting

  10. Permanent mold casting

  11. Ceramic mold casting

  12. Investment casting (lost-wax process)

The casting method or process chosen by the design engineer and the foundry is determined by the following factors:

  • Type of metal to be cast

  • Size of part to be cast

  • Required cast accuracy of the part

  • Economics

  • Required secondary operations such as machining, hardening, welding, and plating

12.1.1 Sand Casting

In the sand-casting process, a wooden, plastic, or metal pattern is packed in a special sand, which is dampened with water, and then removed, leaving a hollow space having the shape of the part. The pattern...

Products & Services
Metal Castings and Cast Stock
Castings and cast stock are metals, alloys, polymers and other materials that are cast into bar, rod, angle, channel, tee, or other shapes.
Ingots and Casting Stock
Ingots and casting stock are metal and alloy product forms designed for foundry work, die casting, investment casting, and other metal casting applications.
Foundry Equipment and Supplies
Foundry equipment and foundry supplies used in die casting, investment casting and other metal casting operations.
Zinc and Zinc Alloys
Zinc and zinc alloys are non-ferrous alloys that are used widely in the production of die cast components.

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