From Handbook of Batteries
- Chapter 37: ADVANCED BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS INTRODUCTION
- Chapter 38: METAL/AIR BATTERIES
- Chapter 39: ZINC/BROMINE BATTERIES
- Chapter 40: SODIUM-BETA BATTERIES
- Chapter 41: LITHIUM/IRON SULFIDE BATTERIES
Philip C. Symonsand Paul C. Butler [a]
37.1 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES
The types and number of applications requiring improved or advanced rechargeable batteries are constantly expanding. The new and evolving applications include electric and electric hybrid vehicles, electric utility energy storage, portable electronics, and storage of electric energy produced by renewable energy resources such as solar or wind generators. In addition, the performance, life and cost requirements for the batteries used in many of these new and existing applications are becoming increasingly more rigorous. Commercially available batteries may not be able to meet these performance requirements. Thus, a need exists for both conventional battery technology with improved performance and advanced battery technologies with characteristics such as high energy and power densities, long life, low cost, little or no maintenance, and a high degree of safety.
Battery performance requirements are application dependent. For example, electric vehicle batteries need:(1) high specific energy and energy density to provide adequate vehicle driving range; (2) high power density to provide acceleration; (3) long cycle life with little maintenance; and (4) low cost. On the other hand, batteries for hybrid electric vehicles require:(1) very high specific power and power density to provide acceleration; (2) capability of accepting high power repetitive charges from regenerative braking; (3) very long cycle life with no maintenance under shallow cycling conditions;
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