From McGraw-Hill Machining and Metalworking Handbook, Third Edition

12.1 Castings

The casting of metals and alloys is an important branch of the metal-working industry. Castings allow parts to be made at a rapid pace with controlled accuracy. Castings replace parts that otherwise would be difficult or impossible to machine and very costly to manufacture. However, castings cannot replace many types of machined parts because of material, configuration, and other physical considerations. Many types of processes are used in the casting and foundry industries to produce cast parts in different materials and for various dimensional accuracy requirements. The casting processes or methods that are in use today include

  • Sand casting

  • Shell casting

  • Carbon dioxide casting

  • Fluid sand casting

  • Composite-mold casting

  • Plaster-mold casting

  • Slush casting

  • Evaporative pattern casting (EPC)

  • Die casting

  • Permanent-mold casting

  • Ceramic-mold casting

  • Investment casting (lost-wax process)

The casting method or process chosen by the design engineer and the foundry is determined by the following factors:

  • Type of metal to be cast

  • Size of part to be cast

  • Required cast accuracy of the part

  • Economics

  • Required secondary operations such as machining, hardening, welding, and plating

12.1.1 Sand Casting

In the sand-casting process, a wooden, plastic, or metal pattern is packed in a special sand, which is dampened with water and then removed, leaving a hollow space having the part's shape. The pattern is purposely made larger than the size of the cast part to allow for shrinkage of the casting as it cools.

The mold consists of two steel frames, which are called the cope (top half)...

Products & Services
Metal Castings and Cast Stock
Castings and cast stock are metals, alloys, polymers and other materials that are cast into bar, rod, angle, channel, tee, or other shapes.
Ingots and Casting Stock
Ingots and casting stock are metal and alloy product forms designed for foundry work, die casting, investment casting, and other metal casting applications.
Foundry Equipment and Supplies
Foundry equipment and foundry supplies used in die casting, investment casting and other metal casting operations.
Casting Machines
Casters and casting machines handle and process molten metals, alloys, and materials to form a net shape, near-net shape, or continuous stock shape. Variations include die casting machines, vacuum casting machines, continuous or strand casting machines, and ingot casting machines.

Topics of Interest

Overview Commercial products and equipment in all classifications require finishes of one type or other. These finishes range from basic oxide coatings to the various paints and plastics to...

12.1 CASTINGS The casting of metals and alloys is an important branch of the metalworking industry and of prime importance to the electromechanical design engineer. Castings allow parts to be made at...

Gravity casting aluminum in permanent molds beats conventional sand and pressure die casting. The mold for this 17-lb, 48-in.-diameter fan was reverse engineered from a sand casting. The fan used in...

Chapter 5.1: Castings Made in Sand Molds Chapter 5.2: Other Castings Chapter 5.3: Investment Castings Chapter 5.4: Die Castings Edward C. Zuppann Meehanite Worldwide Division Meehanite Metal...

Graphite permanent molding is a niche process used for building high-precision zinc-aluminum alloy parts. Assortment of parts molded in graphite permanent molds. Part being removed from graphite...

Product Announcements
Kenmode Custom Precision Metal Stamping
Cly-Del Manufacturing Company