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Dielectric Strength:

Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity):


Loss Tangent (tan δ ):


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Dielectric Properties
   Dielectric Strength       Dielectric strength is the maximum voltage field that the ceramic or material can withstand before electrical breakdown occurs. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Dielectric Constant (Relative Permittivity)       The dielectric constant is the relative permittivity of a material compared to a vacuum or free space.  k = εr = ε / εo= where ε is the absolute permittivity of the material and εo is the absolute permittivity of a vacuum 8.85 x 10-12 F/m.  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Loss Tangent (tan δ )       In dielectric materials, the loss tangent or loss coefficient is ratio of the imaginary or loss permittivity to the real permittivity of a material. In a capacitive circuit with a sinusoidal or AC voltage, the loss tangent is equal to the ratio of dissipated or discharged current to the storage current tan δ = | IR / IC | .  The dielectric quality factor (Q) is equal the inverse of the loss tangent. High Q or low loss tangents are required to reduce insertion losses.  Q = (average stored energy per cycle / energy dissipated per cycle) In magnetic materials or ferrites, the loss tangent or loss coefficient is ration of complex imaginary permeability (µ") to real permeability(µ').  
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
   Electrical Resistivity       Electrical resistivity is the longitudinal electrical resistance (ohm-cm) of a uniform rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area. Electrical resistivity is the inverse of conductivity. High resistivity is a defining characteristic of a dielectric material. 
   Search Logic:      User may specify either, both, or neither of the "At Least" and "No More Than" values. Products returned as matches will meet all specified criteria.
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Material Type
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   Alumina / Aluminum Oxide       Alumina or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is a compound that consists of aluminum and oxygen. Typically, it used in the alpha alumina structural form. In its pure form, alumina is a white ceramic material with high hardness. Fully-dense alumina can be translucent. Alumina is used widely because of its versatility and relatively low cost. Depending on its purity and density, alumina is used to make refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, refractory cements, and abrasives. Alumina’s main drawback is having relatively poor thermal shock resistance, which is due to its higher coefficients of thermal expansion and lower thermal conductivity compared to other pure ceramic materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC).  
   Aluminum Nitride       Aluminum nitride (AlN) ceramics are compounds of aluminum metal and nitrogen. Aluminum nitride is relatively inert. Its good thermal conductivity, combined with high electrical insulation ability, makes these materials useful as substrates, insulators, and barrier layers in microelectronics applications. 
   Aluminum Silicate (Mica, Sillimanite, etc.)       Ceramics contain or are based upon natural or synthetic aluminosilicate minerals such as sillimanite, fibrolite, or mica. Sillimanite, fibrolite, and mica are aluminum silicate (Al2SiO5) compounds that consist of silicon, aluminum and oxygen.  Sillimanite is also a naturally-occurring mineral that is calcined through processing.  Mica also contains potassium, and is characterized by its layer structure. Mica is fireproof and non-fusing, and can resist temperatures of up to 900° C - depending on the type of mica. Mica also has low heat conductivity, excellent thermal stability, and good dielectric or electrical insulation properties. The major types of mica are muscovite, biotite, and phlogopite. 
   Barium Titanate (BT)       Barium titanate (BaTiO3) is a compound consisting of titanium, oxygen, and an additional cation - barium. Barium titanates (BT) are commonly used for their specialized dielectric or piezoelectric properties. Resonators are often made from barium titanate ceramics. The dielectric constant and loss tangent is tuned with the addition of Sn, Nb, Zn, Ta or Mg ions for the specific RF or microwave application.  In piezoelectric applications, modified barium titanate compositions combine high-voltage sensitivity with good temperature characteristics in the -10°C to 60°C range. BT has proven useful for hydrophones and other receiving devices, and low-power projectors applied in fish finder products. 
   Beryllia / Beryllium Oxide       Beryllia and beryllium oxide (BeO) ceramics provide high thermal conductivity and heat dissapation combined with high dielectric strength, which make BeO useful in electronic heatsinks, substrates,  and packaging applications using miniaturized circuitry.  Beryllia is also fabricated into crucibles, rods, washers, and thermocouple tubing. 
   Bismuth Titanate / Sillenite       Bismuth titanate ceramics have very high Curie temperatures and operating temperatures of up to 550°C. These materials exhibit low dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and stable properties up to very high temperatures. Bismuth titanates are used in high-temperature applications such as pressure sensors and accelerometers. Bismuth titanate belongs to the group of sillenite, structure-based ceramics (Bi12MO20 where M=Si, Ge, Ti). 
   Boron Nitride       Boron nitride (BN) ceramics are based on compounds of boron and nitrogen. Boron nitride is relatively inert and has good thermal conductivity combined with good electrical insulation, making this material useful in fabricating substrates and insulators in microelectronics applications. BN is polymorphic, meaning that it occurs in a wide variety of crystalline structure forms. BN is available as amorphous or vitreous, pyrolytic, hexagonal, and cubic crystal structures. Cubic boron nitride (CBN) is a super abrasive that is second only to diamond in hardness.  BN is more resistant to oxidation than carbon.  Depending on the purity, density and crystal structure, boron nitride is used for refractory linings, industrial crucibles, arc furnace electrodes, analytical labware, composites, refractory cements, and super abrasives. Hexagonal BN is structurally weak and used as a high temperature lubricant, coating, or release agent. 
   Cordierite       Cordierite (2MgO·2Al2O3·5SiO2) or cordierite porcelain is a magnesium aluminum silicate produced by fusing a mixture of talc, clay, and aluminum oxide. Cordierite and cordierite mineral precursors are also known as magnesium-alumino silicate, dichroite, and iolite. Cordierite has a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high mechanical strength, and low dielectric loss.  Cordierite is commonly fabricated into an insulator or insulating substrate because of its good dielectric properties. Cordierite has excellent thermal-shock resistance. It can withstand a red heat to ice water quench, and then be returned to red heat. High-fire cordierite body will withstand a temperature rise from 70º to 1800º in 80 seconds, followed by an immediate room-temperature air quench. 
   Diamond / Diamond-Like       Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) materials have high hardness and excellent wear resistance, which makes them useful in wear-part and tooling applications. Pure diamond has the highest hardness of all known materials. The high thermal conductivity and high electrical resistivity of diamond make it suitable for use as a heat-dissipating, dielectric substrate in both electronic and semiconductor applications.  Diamond has a face-centered, cubic structure in which the carbon atoms form tetrahedral bonds. Diamonds occur naturally. Synthetic or man-made diamonds are manufactured on a production basis using high pressures. Diamond-like carbon or coatings have an amorphous structure that still exhibit high-hardness levels. Often, diamond-like carbon materials are made using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) materials are made by consolidating or sintering fine diamond particles together using heat and pressure. PCD can also be manufactured through a CVD process. 
   Electrostrictive Ceramic       Electrostrictive ceramics are relaxor ferroelectric ceramics. Strains vary quadratically with an electric field for the electrostrictor, rather than linearly as in a piezoelectric ceramics. Relaxors exhibit very high dielectric constants (K > 20,000), diffuse ferroelectric-to-paraelectric phase transitions, and electrostrictive strain vs. electric field behavior.  Electrostrictors excel at high frequencies and very-low driving fields. Often, they are applied in specialized microactuators. Electrostrictors display little or no hysteretic loss even at very high frequencies of operation, due to the lack of spontaneous polarization. For transducer applications, electrostrictors must operate under a DC bias field to induce piezoelectric behavior. Operation under bias is characterized by field-dependent piezoelectric and electromechanical coupling coefficients.  Relaxors exhibit poor temperature stability and they operate best in situations where the temperature can be stabilized to within approximately 10°C.  
   Ferrites and Ferromagnetic Ceramics       Ferrite ceramics and ferromagnetic materials have dielectric and magnetic properties that are suitable for radio frequency (RF) and microwave applications. They provide high electrical resistivity and low magnetic losses. Ferrite ceramics and ferromagnetic materials include a number of crystalline materials that exhibit ferromagnetism (or ferrimagnetism). Ferromagnetism is a phenomenon by which a material can exhibit a spontaneous magnetization. It is one of the strongest forms of magnetism. Each ferromagnetic material has a definite temperature, above which it ceases to exhibit spontaneous magnetization. This is called the Curie temperature. 
   Forsterite       Forsterite is a stoichiometric magnesium orthosilicate (Mg2SiO4) used in applications that require a high coefficient of thermal expansion. Forsterite has desirable electrical insulation properties and is used as a layer on transformer steel sheets. This layer is formed by the reaction of magnesium oxide with the silicon additions of the steel during annealing. Forsterite is also used in bulk form to fabricate insulators. 
   Fused Silica       Fused silica is a compound of silicon and oxygen. High purity, amorphous, fused silica is a high-performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000° C, and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Glass Ceramic       Glass ceramics are ceramics that can be fused and then molded, formed, ground, or machined using conventional glass fabrication techniques. After part fabrication, the glass ceramics' structure is transformed from an amorphous, glassy state to a crystalline ceramic state. MACOR® is widely applied glass ceramic with a fluorine rich glass composition approaching trisilicic fluorphlogopite mica (KMg3AlSi3O10F2). MACOR®is a trademarked proprietary material of Corning Corporation.  Ceran®Ceramat®, Robax®and Zerodur® are widely-applied proprietary glass ceramics from Schott Glass Corporation.  
   Hafnia / Hafnium Oxide       Hafnia or hafnium oxide is similar in nature to zirconia, exhibiting high refractoriness or thermal stability and reasonable elevated temperature strength. Hafnia is useful for crucibles, tubes, and thermocouple sheath is specific applications. Hafnia can be stabilized with calcia (CaO) or yttria (Y2O3) for high-temperature applications. Hafnia has a higher bulk density (9 g/cc) compared to zirconia (5.7 g/cc).  Hafnium and zirconium occur together in nature. Hafnium films are used in optical coating applications where they provide a high-index, low-absorption material in the near-UV to IR regions. 
   Kaolin / Clay Based       Kaolin-based refractories or ceramics use natural kaolin or a mixture of clay and other ceramics such as alumina, calcium aluminate, or silicon carbide.  Kaolin acts as a binder and provides plasticity. It is a hydrous, mineral clay that is based on aluminum silicate [Al2(Si205)(0H)4].  Kaolin is also referred to as clay, anhydrous aluminum silicate, aluminum silicate dihydrate, nacrite, dickite, kaolinite, calcined, kaolinite, china clay, bolus alba, porcelain clay, aluminum, silicate hydroxide, or aluminum silicate (hydrated).  Kaolin’s plate-like structure allows particles in a wet clay mass to slide across each other and maintain plasticity. Kaolin is a white, soft, plastic clay composed primarily of well-ordered kaolinite mineral [Al2Si2O5(OH)4] with minor amounts of quartz, feldspar, and sheet silicate minerals (mica, illite, smectite, and chlorite).  Geologically, there are two types of kaolin deposits, i.e., primary and secondary kaolin. Primary kaolin is formed through the alteration, or kaolinization, of in-situ minerals of feldspar and other aluminum silicates to kaolinite. Secondary kaolin is laid down as sediments, usually in fresh water, far from the place of origin. Various types of secondary kaolin are ball clay, fireclay, or flint clay depending on kaolinite content and their properties.  
   Lead Magnesium Niobate (PMN)       Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) materials are magnesium-modified, lead-niobate compositions that have low aging, superior coupling, a high dielectric constant, and a high charge constant. Lead magnesium niobate materials exhibit an electrostrictive or relaxor behavior where strains vary non-linearly (quadratically). These materials are used for hydrophones, actuators, receivers, projectors, sonar transducers, and in micro-positioning devices. PMN forms solid solution alloys (PMN-PT) with lead titanate. 
   Lead Titanate (PT)       Lead titanate (PT) compositions have high mode-cancellation (reduced side-load sensitivity) compared to other solid solution piezoelectric materials, such as zirconium titanates. The good voltage output constant and excellent mode cancellation of lead titanates are valuable for non-destructive testing, accelerometers and hydrophones. 
   Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)       Lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions were developed for moderate power applications. PLZT compositions have a low loss tangent, which results in low power losses, as well as high distortion constant and a high curie point. PLZT's properties are desirable for ultrasonic applications - cleaners and other cavitation products, as well as acoustic projectors. PLZT materials are modified with La or Nb additions to form lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT), or niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate (PNZT) materials. The La or Nb additions counteract the natural p-type conductivity and raise the resistivity. These additives also enhance domain reorientation, resulting in square hysteresis loops, low coercivity, higher coupling factors and reduced aging. Materials are applied in high sensitivity applications such as hydrophones, sounders and loudspeakers. 
   Lead Niobate (PN, PNN, PZN)       Lead niobate includes lead metaniobate (PN), lead nickel niobate (PNN), and lead zinc niobate (PZN). Lead niobate has negligible aging, which helps simplify circuit design. Wide variations in temperature have limited effect on its dielectric and piezoelectric properties, making lead niobate ideal for high-temperature applications. The low mechanical factor and low dielectric constant of lead niobate makes it useful for high-frequency work. For example, lead niobate is used in wide-bandwidth sensors for high-frequency pulse echo measurements that require a short pulse and critical resolution.   Lead metaniobate (PN) exhibits properties not usually present in other types of piezoelectric ceramics, such as its low mechanical factor (QM) and high coupling anisotropy (i.e., small values for lateral and planar coupling compared to longitudinal coupling). PN also has negligible aging, a wide range of operating temperatures, and a low dielectric constant. Lead metaniobate compositions are in probes for non-destructive testing (NDT) transducers where low QM and clean impulse response are required. Underwater sonar equipment utilizes this form of lead niobate because the material has a high longitudinal coupling compared to its lateral and planar coupling, allowing it to generate a better response under hydrostatic pressures.   Lead nickel niobate (PNN) is lead niobate modified with nickel additions. Lead nickel niobate materials can exhibit an electrostrictive or relaxor behavior where strain varies non-linearly (quadratically). Lead nickel niobate compositions were developed to provide enhanced d33 and dielectric properties compared to Navy Type VI materials. These enhanced properties make it the optimum choice for ultrasound or actuator applications. The increased dielectric constant allows engineers to use the material in smaller (higher frequency) applications, while still maintaining the desired or necessary capacitance. The increased d33 allows for higher  displacement applications.  Lead magnesium niobate (PMN) is a lead niobate modified with magnesium additions. PZN materials are zinc-modified lead niobate compositions that exhibit an electrostrictive or relaxor behavior where strain varies non-linearly (quadratically). PZN forms solid-solution alloys with lead titanate and barium titanate (PZN-BT, PZN-PT). Relaxor materials exhibit a high dielectric constant over a range of temperature during transition from ferroelectric to paraelectric phase. The temperature corresponding to maximum dielectric constant is dependent on frequency. Relaxor crystal actuators can produce strain levels in excess of 1% and exhibit five times the strain energy density of a conventional piezoceramic. These materials are used for hydrophones, actuators, receivers, projectors, sonar transducers, capacitors, and in micro-positioning devices.  
   Lithium Niobate (LN)       Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a ferroelectric relaxor material. Lithium niobate single-crystals are widely utilized for their optoelectronic properties in optical modulation and Q-switching of infrared wavelengths.  Fe, Zn, Gd, Cu, Y, B and Er ions are used to dope lithium niobate to tailor properties for specific applications. Lithium tantalate is similar to lithium niobate. 
   Magnesia / Magnesite       Magnesia ceramics or refractories are based on compounds that consist of magnesium and oxygen. Magnesite or magnesia refractories or minerals are also known as magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate, dead burned magnesite, calcined magnesite, periclase, or magnesia clinker. Depending on the origin and processing, magnesia is divided into caustic, dead-burnt, fused, precipitated, sintered, or calcined and synthetic magnesia forms.   The high melting point (2800° C) and heat resistance (1700°C in the reducing and 2300° C in oxidizing atmosphere) of magnesium oxide make it suitable for the production of refractories. Magnesite is the naturally occurring mineral or ore used to produce magnesium oxide based refractories. Magnesite often contains iron, manganese, or other activator elements. Magnesium oxide refractories with a carbon bond are frequently used in the steel industry. Magnesite refractories have good resistance to molten iron and steel.      
   Mullite       Mullite (3Al2O3-2Si02 or Al6Si2O13) is a compound of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen. Mullite can also be viewed as a phase in the alumina-silica binary system. Mullite is a synthetic, fused, or calcined crystalline aluminum silicate produced in electric arc furnaces from alumina and silica.  Mullite usually has an off-white or tan color. Depending on the purity and density, mullite can have superior dielectric and thermal shock properties and resistance to slag and silicate refractory bonds.  Mullite is used for refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, and in refractory cements. Calcining kyanite minerals often derive refractory grade mullite or alumina-mullite mixtures.  
   Piezoelectric Ceramic       Piezoelectric ceramics include quartz and ferroelectric or perovskite materials. Ferroelectric materials include lead titanates, lead zirconates, lead zirconate titanates (PZT), barium titanates, barium tantalate, and lead magnesium niobates. Ferroelectric materials and have the general formula ABO3 .  Piezoelectric materials produce an electrical charge when a load is applied and deformation occurs. These properties make piezoelectric materials useful for pressure or load sensors.  Inversely, piezoelectric materials produce force or deformation when a load is an applied electrical charge. These properties make piezoelectric materials useful for microactuators, nanoactuators, or piezoelectric motors.  
   Porcelain       Porcelain materials are used for both industrial and ornamental applications. Traditional porcelain is made from a mixture of feldspar, clay (kaolin), and flint.  Steatite or cordierite porcelains are commonly used in electrical insulator applications. Many porcelain compositions are based on the K20-Al203-SiO2 or Mg0-Al203-SiO2 ternary systems. 
   Quartz       Quartz is found in a mined mineral form, as well as man-made fused quartz forms. Fused quartz is a high purity, crystalline form of silica used in specialized applications such as semiconductor wafer boats, furnace tubes, bell jars or quartz ware, silicon melt crucibles, high-performance lamps such as mercury and quartz halogen lamps, ultraviolet (UV) lamps, thermocouple protectors, waveguide handles, analytical labware, and other high-temperature products. Single-crystal quartz is also available for piezoelectric applications. 
   REO       Rare earth oxides (REO) ceramics are manufactured from Lanthanide series metal oxides such as lanthana, samaria, ytterbia, and ceria. Rare earth oxide can have unique chemical and surface tension modifying properties. Mixed rare earth compositions consist of rare earth oxides combined with more conventional oxides; oxides of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu. 
   Sapphire       Sapphire is a high-purity and high-density, single-crystalline form of aluminum oxide, which may contain chromia, titania, yttria, or other dopants. Sapphire is usually transparent or translucent.  Sapphire ceramics are used in lasers, substrates, jewel bearings, watch crystals or other optical, wear, electronic, and specialized applications. Ruby, corundum, and topaz are other names for natural or synthetic sapphire. Ruby is chromium-doped sapphire used in optical filters and laser rods.   
   SiAlON       SiAlON (Al2O3-Si3N4) is an alloy of silicon nitride and aluminum oxide. SiAlON has the combined properties of silicon nitride (high strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and low thermal expansion) and aluminum oxide (corrosion resistance, chemically inert, high temperature capabilities, and oxidation resistance). SiAlON is a superior refractory material for components exposed to high temperatures, mechanical abuse, corrosion, wear, or applications requiring electrical resistance. 
   Silica / Silicate Materials       Ceramics are based on silica and silicate materials. Silica and silicates are compounds of silicon and oxygen. For dielectric applications, silicates are modified with magnesium and/or aluminum to provide sufficient dielectric properties. Cordierite and steatite are silicates that are commonly used in dielectric applications. High-purity, amorphous, fused silica is a high-performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000° C, and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Silicide (MoSi2)       Silicide ceramics are compounds that consist of a metal and silicon such as molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2). Molybdenum disilicide is commonly used as a resistant heating element in high temperature furnaces. 
   Silicon Nitride       Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is a compound that consists of silicon and nitrogen.  It has superior mechanical properties and forms a protective SiO2 skin at high temperatures. Silicon nitride ceramics are difficult to sinter by conventional means because the material dissociates above 1800o C. 
   Steatite       Steatite or steatite porcelains are based on hydrated magnesium silicate (3MgO-4SiO2-4H2O) and are similar in composition to naturally-occurring soapstone or mineral talc. Steatite ceramics may also have additions of alumina, calcia, and ferrous oxide.  Resistance heaters and electrical insulators are commonly made of steatite due to the material's low cost, refractoriness, and high electrical resistance at high temperatures. Steatite and steatite minerals are also known as soapstone, massive talc, block steatite, and soapstone silicate. Steatite ceramic is ideal for high frequency, low loss, and high voltage insulation. Steatite has good mechanical properties and low loss electrical qualities. It is ideal for resistor forms, igniters, standoffs, surge arrestors, coil forms, spacers, spark plugs, etc. Steatite is easily fabricated to close tolerances and is much less expensive than alumina ceramic insulators. 
   Titania / Titanate       Titania or rutile minerals (TiO2) are compounds that consist of titanium and oxygen. Titanates are compounds with titanium, an additional cation (Ba, Al, Sr), and oxygen. Examples include BaTiO3. Typically, titania and titanates are used as additions to other refractories, or for their specialized electrical or piezoelectric properties. 
   Yttria       Yttria or yttrium oxide powders are used as additives for strengthening ceramics, forming phosphors, microwave garnets, and lasing garnets. Yttria powders are also used to form a molten, metal-resistant coating on the internal walls of crucibles.  Yttria additions in zirconia ceramics can stabilize the tetragonal phase, providing a transformation toughening mechanism. Yttria is used as a constituent in yttrium-iron garnets for microwave applications and neodybnium-yttrium-aluminum garnets for Nd:YAG laser applications. High temperature superconductors, such as YBa2Cu3O, also utilize yttrium. While not technically within the rare earth group, yttrium oxide shares many of the properties typical of REO materials. 
   Zircon       Zircon is a compound of a zirconium silicate, ZrSiO4, which is found naturally in the form of zircon sand. Zircon has useful refractory properties. 
   Zirconia       Zirconia or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is a refractory compound of zirconium and oxygen. Zirconia may have additions of calcia, magnesia, or yttria to stabilize the structure into a cubic structure. Zirconia stabilized in the cubic crystal structure avoids cracking and mechanical weakening during heating and cooling. Certain zirconia materials have the ability to transformation toughen (tetragonal to monoclinic phase change) under applied stress. They are often used in wear applications that require improved fracture toughness and stiffness over alumina.  Zirconia ceramics possess excellent chemical inertness and corrosion resistance at temperatures well above the melting point of alumina. Zirconia is more costly than alumina, so it is only used where alumina will fail. Zirconia has low thermal conductivity and is an electrical conductor above 800° C. Zirconia is used to fabricate oxygen sensors or fuel cell membranes because it possesses the unique ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure above 600° C. Zirconia products should not be used in contact with alumina above 1600°C.  Depending on the purity and density, zirconia is used in refractory tubes or cylinders, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, sensors, wear components, refractory cements, thermocouple protection tubes, furnace muffles, liners, and high temperature heating element supports. 
   Zirconium Phosphate       Ceramics are based on a zirconium phosphate 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary ceramic types. 
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Shape / Form
   Shape / Form:       
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   Bar Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a bar or rod, usually with a square cross-section. Stock forms can be processed in rectangular, oval, hexagonal, or other shapes. 
   Block       Blocks are building materials or masonry units consisting of fired ceramic or cement materials with a regular shape. Blocks usually have a rectangular shape, although specialized shapes are used for paving, refractory, decorative and other specialized applications. Refractory or fireclay blocks are manufactured from temperature resistant materials.  Refractory blocks are stacked to form an insulating furnace, boiler, or other thermal process vessel wall.  The refractory blocks are usually cemented together with a refractory mortar. Blocks are similar to bricks but typically smaller in overall dimensions. 
   Fabricated / Custom Shape       Materials are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape such as a crucible, valve seat, blade, fired custom shaped brick or block, custom contoured tile, diffuser, furnace lining, degasser, and precast cement or concrete structural shape. The custom shape could be fabricated using pressing, slip casting, firing or sintering, melting, casting, cement form casting, and/or other processing methods. 
   Ferrule / Eyelet       Ferrules and eyelets are cylindrically-shaped ceramic components with a central bore for protection or spacing applications. Refractory ferrules provide the best protection possible for vulnerable boiler tube inlet areas and metal tube sheets in sulfur recovery units (SRUs), methane reformers and waste heat boilers (WHBs). Eyelets are used in textile and wear guide applications.  Ceramic ferrules or stand-offs are used in circuit board, fiber optic, and RF & microwave applications. Electronic ferrules or stand-offs required good dielectric properties.  Optical ceramic ferrules are used in the alignment of optical fiber. Electronic ferrules are used in spacing or insulating electronic components. 
   Granular Fill / Bed Media       Granular fill is a loose, insulating material such as vermiculite that is loaded into a cavity to provide insulation and remains in a loose, unbonded condition. Bed media is a loose granular ceramic used in a catalytic oxidizer, fluid bed heater, or other thermal process unit to hold, filter or carry catalyst chemicals or particles during the heating, burning, or chemical reaction operation. Typically, ceramic bed media and granular fill have a high degree of porosity. 
   Liner - Modular / Sectional       Modular or sectional lining systems consist of a series of interlocking components that fit or stack together to form a protective furnace lining. Induction furnaces often utilize a modular furnace lining system fabricated from ceramics that do not interfere with the inductive heating process. Liners may use a backup of ramming cement behind the liner, but not within the interlocking grooves.  Removal of refractory cement between the ceramic sections improves lining life and quality of the melt.  Tongue and groove crucibles are a modular crucible system consisting of a series of interlocking components that stack together to form a furnace lining or crucible.   
   Plate / Board (e.g., Fiberboard)       Stock products are available in the form of a solid plate, slab, board, or substrate. The board or plate may consist of a ceramic fiberboard product, a dense sintered ceramic plate, or a precast cement bonded slab. 
   Powder / Aggregate (Grain / Grog)       Stock products are available in a particulate form such as a powder, grog, grain, or fused and crushed aggregate. 
   Precursor / Sol-gel       Stock or standard products are available in the form of a liquid, solid or gaseous chemical precursor, or sol-gel chemical components. Sol-gel ceramics are made using alkoxide precursor chemicals. 
   Tile       Tile consists of a flat, thin ceramic shape usually with beveled edges for lining or covering a surface. Tile may have square, rectangular, hexagonal, triangular, round or custom shapes.  Tiles often have a protective glaze to create a waterproof or water resistance surface.  Tile can be smooth and glossy for wall applications, or anti-slip textured with a matt finish for floor applications. 
   Wafer Carrier / Holder       Wafer carriers and holders are specialized devices for processing of silicon or compound (GaAs) semiconductor wafers. Ceramics are used to fabricate wafer carriers due to their corrosion resistance and refractoriness. Wafers are mounted onto or held by the carriers during dicing, polishing, lapping, thinning, chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), inspection or other operations. 
   Wafer / Substrate       Ceramic products in the form of thin substrates and wafers are used in semiconductor, thin and thick-film deposition, and optoelectronics applications. The ceramic material may be a dielectric insulator, a semiconductor, or a semi-insulator. Wafers for semiconductor applications usually consist of round substrates that are precision-polished and planarized. 
   Rod Stock       Stock products are available in the form of a rod or a bar with a round cross-section.  
   Tube Stock       Tube stock has a single, central bore or inner diameter. Tubes are commonly used as heating elements, for thermocouple protection, or channeling molten metal. 
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   Hollow Stock / Shape?       Materials are supplied or available as hollow tubes, pipes or other stock with an open internal bore. 
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   Length       The length of a stock material such as a bar, rod, plate or tube.  
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   Width / O.D.       The width is the outer diameter (O.D.) of stock shapes such as bars, plates, and tubes; or of fabricated components such as crucibles. 
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   Thickness / Wall Thickness       The thickness of a stock form, tube wall, or other fabricated component. Stock forms include bars, rods, plates and tubes. 
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   Bore Diameter (I.D.)       The bore diameter or inner diameter (ID) is the width at the bottom of fabricated, tapered components such as crucibles. 
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   Max Use / Curie Temperature       This is the maximum temperature that the refractory or ceramic material can be exposed to momentarily without the degradation of structural or other required end-use properties.  The maximum use temperature is usually equal to the melt temperature of the metal, glass, or other material contained by the refractory body in the furnace, boiler or process unit. The Curie point is the temperature above which a material loses its unique magnetic, dielectric or piezoelectric property.  Ferrites or other magnetic materials lose their unique magnetic properties above the Curie temperature. The relative permeability drops to a value below 0.1 above the Curie temperature.  Magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to temperature. 
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   Thermal Conductivity       Thermal conductivity is the linear heat transfer per unit area through a material for a given applied temperature gradient. Heat flux (h) = [thermal conductivity (k) ] x [temperature gradient (Δ T)] 
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   Coeff. of Thermal Expansion (CTE)       The coefficient of linear expansion (CTE) is the amount of linear expansion or shrinkage that occurs in a material with a change in temperature. 
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   Your choices are...         
   Electrical / HV Parts       Materials are used to fabricate electrical parts for high voltage or power applications. Examples include insulators, igniters or heating elements. 
   Electronics / RF-Microwave       Materials are suitable for electronics applications, including RF and microwave. Ferrites, garnets, alumina/sapphire and silicates have sufficient dielectric properties for use in electronic, radio frequency (RF) and microwave devices such as antenna radomes, patch antenna substrates, thin/thick film substrates and resonators. In addition, ceramics, glass and other non-metallic compounds or elemental semiconductors are used as substrates, wafer or dummy wafers in semiconductor manufacturing.  Ceramics are also used for wafer chucks or holders, wafer furnace boats and thin film chamber liners. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
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   Performance Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Metallized / Silvered (Electrode, Mirror)       Ceramic surfaces are coated with a thin metal layer applied by plating, thin film, fired-on coating or other process. The coatings maybe continuous or selectively patterned on the surface or thru vias. In addition, float glass sheet or glass plate silvered to produce sheet mirror stock. 
   Machinable       Machinable ceramics can be machined in the green, glass or finished state without excessive chipping. Typically, non-machinable ceramics are ground to finished dimensions, often with super abrasive grinding wheels. 
   Modified / Doped       Materials are modified or doped with ions or additions of another ceramic to impart specific properties or improve processing. 
   Porous / Foam       Porous ceramics have a large degree of open or closed internal pores that provide a thermal barrier.  Certain ceramics have intrinsically low thermal conductivity, even in dense forms.  Reticulated foam refractories are useful in filtering molten metals and providing an extremely low density structure for insulation or other applications. 
   Sintered / Fired       Sintered or fired ceramics are homogenous materials in which individual grains or crystals are bonded to each other without the introduction of a foreign material (binder or cement) beyond small traces of dopants or sintering aids. These materials are densified through sintering or firing process. Sintered ceramics are sometime hot-pressed or hot isostatic pressed (HIP) to increase density close to theoretical. 
   Single Crystal       Single crystal materials consist of a monocrystal or single grain without any grain boundaries. The atoms maintain the same unit cell pattern and orientation throughout the material.  Single crystals of natural or man-made materials exhibit the desirable piezoelectric, optical or magnetic properties that cannot be attained with a polycrystalline ceramic material. An expanding variety of single crystals is being developed for acoustic, optical, wireless communication, and other applications. 
   Soft       Soft ferrites have low magnetization and are used in applications where the fields and magnetizations are cycled frequently and hysteresis losses are critical. Soft ferrites exhibit magnetic properties only when they are subject to a magnetizing force such as the magnetic field created when current is passed through wire surrounding a soft magnetic core.  Ceramic ferrites have a distinct advantage in some applications (magnetic cores) over ferromagnetic metals because their highly resistive nature eliminates or minimizes eddy current losses. Soft piezoelectrics are less resistant to stress induced depolarization compared to hard piezoelectrics. High sensitivity or "soft" ceramics feature high sensitivity and permittivity, but if over driven these materials can be damaged due to self-heating beyond their operating temperature range or Curie temperature. Soft piezoelectrics are used in various sensors, low-power motor-type transducers, receivers, and low power generators. 
   Hard       Hard ferrites or magnetic materials have high magnetization or remanence (B) and these materials are used as permanent magnets. Hard ferrites retain their magnetization after the applied magnetics is removed. Soft ferrites have low magnetization and are used in applications where the fields and therefore magnetizations are cycled frequently and hysteresis losses are critical. Ceramic ferrites have a distinct advantage in some applications (magnetic cores) over ferromagnetic metals because their highly resistive nature eliminates or minimizes eddy current losses. High power or "hard" piezoelectric ceramics can withstand high levels of electrical excitation and mechanical stress. These materials are suited for high voltage or high power generators and transducers.  Hard piezoelectric ceramics are more resistant to stress induced depolarization compared to soft piezoelectrics.  Hard piezoelectric materials are characterized by a very high load or distortion constant, low hysteresis and high Qm.    
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary material features. 
   Coated       Coated materials use or are available with a glaze (fused glass enamel), metallized coating, plastic coating or other protective coating. The coating may seal porosity, improve water or chemical resistance, or enhance joining to metals or other materials. This category also includes glass materials with an organic coating or film, or ceramic frit coating for spandrel applications. 
   Composite / Ceramic Matrix       Composite materials consist of a matrix material reinforced with a stronger or higher modulus second phase.  The second phase may be in the form of particulates, chopped fibers or continuous fibers.  The matrix may consist of a ceramic in CRC or ceramic matrix composites.  Ceramic or reinforcing fibers are commonly chosen with high modulus and/or strength. 
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