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Aggregate / Fill Material:

Bond / Processing Features:

Setting / Cure Technology:

Set / Cure Time:

Set / Cure Temperature:



Max Use:

MOR / Flexural Strength:

Compressive / Crushing Strength:



Help with Cement, Concrete, and Mortar specifications:

   Your choices are...         
   Grout / Filler       Grout and caulk are types of sealants used to fill in gaps between tiles, bricks, or other components. 
   Cement / Binder       Cement refers to a mixture of binder and aggregate to form concretes or mortars such as Portland cement (calcium silicate), potassium silicate, or polymer cement. Sometimes, the term "cement" is used to describe mortars and other cement products. 
   Coating / Thinset       Cement-based coating products are thin-set materials applied in thinner layers than liner products, mortar or concretes. The terms thinset cement, thinset mortar, dryset mortar ,and drybond mortar are synonymous. 
   Concrete       Concrete consists of specialty cement or Portland cement and water mixed with coarse aggregate (e.g., gravel or crushed stone), fine aggregate or sand. 
   Fabricated / Custom Shape       Materials are fabricated in the form of a custom or application-specific shape such as a crucible, valve seat, blade, fired custom shaped brick or block, custom contoured tile, diffuser, furnace lining, degasser, and precast cement or concrete structural shape. The custom shape could be fabricated using pressing, slip casting, firing or sintering, melting, casting, cement form casting, and/or other processing methods. 
   Investment / Mold Refractory       Investment may consist of a refractory powder with plaster or phosphate binder that is cast around a lost wax pattern.  Investment may also consist of a ceramic slurry and powder that is coated onto a hanging lost wax, plastic or foam pattern.  Permanent molds are made from refractory, ceramic, or ceramic-coated metal molds. Plastic refractory cement can be rammed around a reusable pattern to form a permanent ceramic mold or refractory shape. Refractory aggregates are also used to build up a shell in the investment casting process. 
   Liner / Lining System       Cement-based liners or lining systems are much heavier, or are applied in thicker layers than cement coatings or thinsets. Liners can be prefabricated or applied on site by pouring or pumping into forms or through gunning techniques. 
   Mortar       Mortars consist of a mixture of a binder or clinker and a fine aggregate. They are used to bond together brick or other components in structural applications.  
   Powder / Aggregate       Stock products are available in a particulate form such as a powder, grog, grain, or fused and crushed aggregate. 
   Other       Other specialized, proprietary or unlisted concrete, mortar or cement-based product types. 
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Material Type
   Aggregate / Fill Material       
   Your choices are...         
   Alumina / Aluminum Oxide       Alumina or aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is a compound that consists of aluminum and oxygen. Typically, it used in the alpha alumina structural form. In its pure form, alumina is a white ceramic material with high hardness. Fully-dense alumina can be translucent. Alumina is used widely because of its versatility and relatively low cost. Depending on its purity and density, alumina is used to make refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, dielectric substrates, wear components, refractory cements, and abrasives. Alumina’s main drawback is having relatively poor thermal shock resistance, which is due to its higher coefficients of thermal expansion and lower thermal conductivity compared to other pure ceramic materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC).  
   Calcium Aluminate       Calcium aluminate (CaAlO3) refractories are usually derived from calcium aluminate, calcium, or alumina-bearing minerals.  Calcium aluminate is used in refractory cements and shapes, as well as synthetic slag additions for metallurgical operations.    
   Silicon Carbide       Silicon carbide (SiC) is a compound of silicon metalloid and oxygen. Typically, SiC is used in the alpha silicon carbide structural form. Silicon carbide is a black, high-hardness ceramic that is usually harder than alumina. Depending on the addition of impurities, SiC may be green or black in color.  Fully-dense SiC can be transparent (moissanite).  SiC is used widely because of its versatility and relatively low cost. Depending on its purity and density, SiC is used in refractory tubes, industrial crucibles, wafer semi-insulating substrates, wear components, refractory cements, and abrasives. SiC forms a protective SiO2 skin that prevents further oxidation at very high temperatures in non-reducing atmospheres. Because of its low coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity, SiC has a relatively high thermal shock resistance compared to other ceramic materials. 
   Carbon / Graphite       Graphite has a carbon without a crystalline structure that is referred to as amorphous, vitreous, or glassy carbon. 
   Magnesia / Magnesite       Magnesia ceramics or refractories are based on compounds that consist of magnesium and oxygen. Magnesite or magnesia refractories or minerals are also known as magnesium oxide, magnesium carbonate, dead burned magnesite, calcined magnesite, periclase, or magnesia clinker. Depending on the origin and processing, magnesia is divided into caustic, dead-burnt, fused, precipitated, sintered, or calcined and synthetic magnesia forms.   The high melting point (2800° C) and heat resistance (1700°C in the reducing and 2300° C in oxidizing atmosphere) of magnesium oxide make it suitable for the production of refractories. Magnesite is the naturally-occurring mineral or ore used to produce magnesium oxide based refractories. Magnesite often contains iron, manganese, or other activator elements. Magnesium oxide refractories with a carbon bond are frequently used in the steel industry. Magnesite refractories have good resistance to molten iron and steel.      
   Silica / Silicate Materials       Ceramics are based on silica and silicate materials. Silica and silicates are compounds of silicon and oxygen. For dielectric applications, silicates are modified with magnesium and/or aluminum to provide sufficient dielectric properties. Cordierite and steatite are silicates that are commonly used in dielectric applications. High-purity, amorphous, fused silica is a high-performance ceramic with very low expansion, remarkable thermal shock resistance, low thermal conductivity, excellent electrical insulation up to 1000° C, and excellent resistance to corrosion from molten metal and glass. 
   Zirconia       Zirconia or zirconium oxide (ZrO2) is a refractory compound of zirconium and oxygen. Zirconia may have additions of calcia, magnesia, or yttria for stabilization into a cubic structure. Zirconia stabilized in a cubic crystal structure avoids cracking and mechanical weakening during heating and cooling. Certain zirconia materials have the ability to transformation toughen (tetragonal to monoclinic phase change) under applied stress. They are often used in wear applications that require improved fracture toughness and stiffness over alumina.  Zirconia ceramics possess excellent chemical inertness and corrosion resistance at temperatures well above the melting point of alumina. Zirconia is more costly than alumina, so it is only used where alumina will fail. Zirconia has low thermal conductivity and is an electrical conductor above 800° C. Zirconia is used to fabricate oxygen sensors or fuel cell membranes because it possesses the unique ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure above 600° C. Zirconia products should not be used in contact with alumina above 1600°C.  Depending on the purity and density, zirconia is used in refractory tubes or cylinders, industrial crucibles, analytical labware, sensors, wear components, refractory cements, thermocouple protection tubes, furnace muffles, liners, and high-temperature heating element supports. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary ceramic types. 
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   Bond / Processing Features:       
   Your choices are...         
   Calcium Aluminate Bond       Polycrystalline ceramics are aggregate-based refractories that use a calcium aluminate bond between individual grains or aggregates. 
   Carbon Bond       Carbon bonds are used in high temperature carbon-carbon composites. Carbon bonds are often created by converting an organic or resin binder to carbon using heat and a controlled atmosphere. Organic or polymer resin binders hold carbon, carbide, or other ceramics together until firing.  
   Portland Cement / CaSiO3 Bond       Portland cements, as well as some refractories, are based on calcium silicate. Calcium silicate (CaSiO3) refractories are usually derived from calcium silicate, calcium, or silicate bearing minerals such hornblende, epidote, and diopside, often with calcite or dolomite or wollastonite. Wollastonite is a naturally occurring form of calcium silicate that is commonly used as filler.   Portland cement, the fundamental ingredient in concrete, is calcium silicate cement made from a combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, and iron oxide minerals. Clinker is a fused mineral mixture of limestone, shells or chalk and shale, clay, sand, or iron ore, which is crushed into a fine powder to manufacture Portland cements. Certain grades of cements may contain additions of fine aggregates of fumed silica, fly ash, or milled slag as well as chemical additives to improve strength, entrain air, reduce heat generation and cracking, or improve corrosion resistance to sulphates or other chemicals. 
   Phosphate       Magnesium phosphate cement is a rapid setting, early strength gain cement. It is usually used for special applications, such as repair of pavements and concrete structures or for resistance to certain aggressive chemicals. It does not contain Portland cement. 
   Silicate / Clay Bond       Polycrystalline ceramics or aggregate-based refractories use a silicate or clay bond between individual grains or aggregates. 
   Slag Cement       Slag cement uses ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) to replace a portion of the Portland cement in a concrete mixture; this creates a more consistent mix. Slag cements fall under the category of blended hydraulic cements with two types: Type S-slag cement and Type I (SM)-slag modified Portland cement. The blast-furnace slag content of Type S is between 25 percent and 70 percent by mass. Type S contains at least 70 percent slag by mass. 
   Sulfate Bond       Sulfate-bond products are polycrystalline ceramics or aggregate-based refractories, cements or adhesives that use a sulfate or oxysulfate bond between individual grains or aggregates. 
   Sulfur Bond       Sulfur cement melts at temperatures between 113° C and 121° C. Sulfur concrete is maintained at temperatures around 130° C during mixing and placing. The material gains strength quickly as it cools, and is resistant to acids and aggressive chemicals. Sulfur cement does not contain Portland or hydraulic cement. 
   Polymer Modified       Portland cement is modified with polymer additions to improve plasticity, water resistance, or allow use during cold or freezing weather conditions. 
   Polymer Bond        Organic or polymer resin binders hold refractories together until firing. Some resins are designed to burn out while other will convert to carbon. Polymer cements, mortars, or concretes are used in corrosion protection applications such as linings or walls in chemical process plants. Polymer cements and mortars are used to bond corrosion resistant tile, brick, or other masonry components. Carbon bonds are used in high temperature carbon-carbon composites. 
   Acrylate       Acrylic binders are known for excellent environmental resistance and fast-setting time compared to other resin systems.  Polymerizing acrylic or methylacrylic acids through a reaction with a suitable catalyst makes acrylic binders. They cure through a free radical mechanism. While they are usually supplied in two-component form, they do not typically require mixing. The catalyst, accelerator, or hardener can be applied to one surface and the acrylic resin to the other surface.  These adhesives or sealants are called two-step systems. Sufficient diffusion will occur when the surfaces are adjoined to complete curing of the adhesive.  Acrylic binders are available in both of emulsion and solvent based versions. 
   Epoxy       Epoxy resins or binders exhibit high strength and low shrinkage during curing. Epoxies are known for their toughness and resistance to chemical and environmental damage. Most epoxies are two-part systems cured at room temperature. Some thermally cured or thermoset one-part epoxies are also available. Depending on the formulation, epoxy resins are used as potting agents, resin binders or laminating resins in fiberglass or composite construction, electrical conductors in microelectronic packaging, and various structural bonding applications. 
   Polyurethane       Polyurethane resins or binders provide excellent flexibility, impact resistance and durability. They are available in one or two-part adhesive systems. Polyurethanes are formed through the reaction of an isocyanate component with polyols or other active hydroxyl group compounds. Polyurethanes bond well to plastic surfaces and make an excellent flexible potting compound. Polyurethanes require a catalyst, heat, or air evaporation to initiate and complete curing.  Some disadvantages of polyurethanes are their short shelf life due to hydroscopic (water absorption) tendencies, and their generally slower cure combined with more complicated handling and curing procedures. 
   Vinyl Ester / Polyester       Resin binders are based on the vinyl ester or polyester system. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary bond types. 
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Setting / Cure Technology
   Setting / Cure Technology:       
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   Hydraulic Setting       Hydraulically-set bonds use the hydration reaction of a salt to form a bond. Portland cement and plaster of Paris are hydraulically-setting materials. 
   Air Setting       Air setting or film drying materials form a bond or "harden" through evaporation of water or an organic solvent.  Inorganic binders or cements are sometimes air setting. Refractory or high-temperature air set types may develop strong bonds after firing.  
   Chemical Setting       Binders or adhesives are set through a chemical reaction process. Silicates (sodium, potassium, ethyl, etc.) are commonly used as binders in foundry, refractory, and grinding wheel applications.  
   Heat Setting / Thermoset       Heat setting or thermoset bond use an elevated temperature and/or pressures to set the binder. Thermoset resin binders are cross-linked polymeric resins that are cured using heat or heat and pressure. Cured thermoset resins do not melt and flow when heated, but they may soften. Phenolic, melamine and urea formaldehyde resins are thermosetting adhesives that offer strong bonds and good resistance to high temperatures.  
   Hot Melt       Hot melt bonds can be repeatedly softened by heat and hardened or set by cooling, which allows parts to be removed or repositioned during assembly. Sulfur bond is an example of hot melt cement. 
   Two / Multiple Component       Two or multi-component bond or binder systems consist of two or more resins or a resin and a hardener or catalyst, that when combined, react and cure into a polymerized compound or bond. 
   Other       Other specialized, proprietary or unlisted technology types. 
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Processing Specifications (Cement, Concrete or Mortar)
   Set / Cure Time       The time required for fully curing or setting a bond system. In thermosetting, hydraulic, or other chemically setting system, the time will vary depending on the actual curing temperature.  Longer cure times will be required for lower curing temperatures.  In addition, the time required for fully drying an air setting product. 
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   Set / Cure Temperature       The time required for curing a thermosetting system.  The temperature will vary depending on the actual curing time allowable. Higher curing temperatures will be required for lower cure times. 
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   Shrinkage       The maximum percent of linear shrinkage occurring after drying, setting and/or curing. 
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Thermal & Mechanical
   Max Use       This is the maximum temperature that the refractory or ceramic material can be exposed to momentarily, without the degradation of structural or other required end-use properties. The maximum use temperature is usually equal to the melt temperature of the metal, glass, or other material contained by the refractory body in the furnace, boiler or process unit. The Curie point is the temperature above which a material loses its unique magnetic, dielectric or piezoelectric property. Ferrites or other magnetic materials lose their unique magnetic properties above the Curie temperature. The relative permeability drops to a value below 0.1 above the Curie temperature. Magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to temperature. 
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   MOR / Flexural Strength       Modulus of rupture (MOR), cross-break strength or flexural strength (3-point or 4-point) is the maximum flexural stress a bar can withstand before failure or fracture occurs. The bar is supported by two points beneath the bar and the load is applied by one or two points above the bar. Cross break strength is used to evaluate the strength of ceramics or other materials that do not provide sufficient plastic deformation to test tensile strength reliably.  
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   Compressive / Crushing Strength       The crushing or compressive strength is the maximum compressive load per unit cross section that a ceramic body can withstand before mechanical failure or breakage occurs.   
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   Your choices are...         
   Foundry / Metal Processing       Materials are designed for foundry and metal-processing applications. Examples include ceramic and refractory crucibles, tubes, stoppers, liners, spouts, permanent molds, thermocouple protection tubes, combustion gas heater tubes, submersible heater tubes, die casting stalks/sleeves, and other furnace components are used in foundries for melting and casting aluminum, steel, copper alloys or other metals. 
   Refractory / High Temperature Materials       Refractory and high-temperature materials are hard, heat-resistant products such as alumina cement, fire clay, bricks, precast shapes, cement or monolithics, and ceramic kiln furniture. Ceramic refractories have high melting points and are suitable for applications requiring wear-resistance, high temperature strength, electrical or thermal insulation, or other specialized characteristics. 
   Structural       Structural applications require ceramic components with a suitable strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and other mechanical properties. Ceramics can have much higher compressive strengths and elastic moduli compared to metals. 
   Thermal Insulation / Fire Proofing       Thermally-insulating ceramics and refractories provide a thermal barrier between components and a hot or cold source. These ceramics and refractory shapes are also useful in providing flame protection and fire-proofing between a burner and the surrounding environment, or between combustion and oxygen sources. 
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized or proprietary applications. 
   Ceramics / Glass Manufacturing       Materials provide resistance to molten glass, or are compatible with ceramics and glasses during firing, calcining or fusing in a kiln or furnace. 
   Chemical / Materials Processing       Materials provide high temperature and/or corrosion resistance, making them suitable for chemical-processing applications.  Examples include ceramics or refractories with resistance to molten glass, ceramics, metals, plastics or other materials during milling, firing, calcination, fusion or other processes. 
   Construction & Building / Architectural       Materials are designed or suitable for use in architectural, building, and construction applications. Examples include bricks, fire bricks, or tiles.  
   Flooring       Materials are suitable for flooring or floor-tiling applications. 
   Walls       Materials are suitable for use on walls. 
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   Fiber Reinforced       Fiberboards, fiber-based, or fiber-reinforced products include ceramic boards, cylinders or shapes that contain ceramic or mineral wool fibers to improve structural integrity or insulating characteristics. 
   Porous / Foam       Porous ceramics have a large degree of open or closed internal pores that provide a thermal barrier. Certain ceramics have intrinsically low thermal conductivity, even in dense forms.  Reticulated foam refractories are useful in filtering molten metals and providing an extremely low density structure for insulation or other applications. 
   Castable        Products can be poured into a form or cavity to fabricate a refractory liner or component. Some castables may not be pumpable. 
   Gunning / Shotcrete (e.g., Gunnite)       Gunning mixes are cements or powdered products that are loaded with a gun into a form or onto a wall to fashion a cement wall or layer. Dry or wet gunning mixes are available. 
   Ramming       Both dry rams (vibratables) and wet mix rams are available. Wet rams are cement based products with enough plasticity to allow the wet mix to be rammed or formed into place in a furnace or in a form. Ramming material has a clay-to-putty like consistency.  Rams generally have lower water content and less plasticity than moldables.  Dry rams are supplied as a dry powder that is applied and fired in place. Silicate, phosphate or other binders are activated upon firing. The dry refractory powders or aggregates are tamped or rammed into the floor or vibrated into place between the furnace wall and a removable furnace "former." On smaller furnaces, a former less method is used where a unit is filled with dry refractory powder, fired and then the excess unfired refractory is removed for reuse. Some dry refractories are also called dry rams or dry ramming cements. 
   Troweling / Patching        Troweling cements have good plastering or palming characteristics to allow the refractory to be applied by hand or rammed into place. Moldable cements usually have more water and a higher degree of plasticity than rams. Moldables or plastic cements are used to patch or form precast shapes. Patching, repair or finishing cements consist of mixtures designed for repairing crack or filling holes in refractory linings.  Some patching or repair cements may be pumpable for caulking of cracks. Other patching cements have good troweling, plastering or palming characteristics to allow cracks to be applied by hand. Finishing cements are used to make a harder finishing refractory layer on the surface of an existing refractory. 
   Waterproof / Underwater Setting       Waterproof mortars, concretes or cements are not affected by exposure to water or submersion under water. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary material features. 
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