The WaferSight wafer-flatness tool performs high-resolution and high-throughput mapping of wafer shape, flatness, and thickness variations. Based on proprietary optical laser interferometry, the in-line metrology system is available for 300- and advanced 200-mm wafer processing. Its subnanometer site-flatness measurement precision offers chipmakers good control of polishing, which improves yields of fine-line-geometry devices. The multigenerational tool has automated noncontaminating edge-grip wafer-handling capability and supports the ITRS at the 90-, 65-, and 45-nm nodes. In addition to performing industry-standard wafer thickness, flatness, and bow and warp measurements, the tool measures wafer-edge roll-off, a critical component of lithography yield, and CMP uniformity and process control. The Thornton total organic carbon (TOC) sensor is offered with the 770MAX, an on-line transmitter that provides multiple TOC and conductivity measurements in a user-configurable multiparameter instrument platform. The instrument features low detection limits with fast and continuous response, providing complete, accurate, and reliable data. The sensor technology makes system installation and startup fast and simple. A dedicated multisensor interface (MSI) is available for Modline 5–series infrared sensors. The MSI enables users to access configuration and temperature data
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Groundwater Monitoring Equipment
Groundwater monitoring equipment includes pumps and other instruments that tap into the water table for water quality assessment, testing for pollutants, and the identification of other compounds.
Dewatering equipment uses force, including vacuum and centrifugal motion, to separate water from solids.
Bladder pumps consist of a flexible, squeezable bladder encased in a rigid outer casing. They are low-flow pneumatic devices used for sampling applications.
Well pumps are most commonly used to bring water from wells and springs to the surface.
Topics of Interest
On April 29 2011, Houston-based Griffin Dewatering Corp. began pumping 15 million gallons of water from the site. It also used 42 10-in.-dia, 75-ft-deep wells outside the dam perimeter to lower the...
When determining a pump for an application, there are a number of factors to consider. Among them are flow requirements, head conditions, and suction requirements. While the five pumps in this photo...
Most municipal water systems and over 90% of the rural population receive potable water from wells that are tapped into water bearing aquifers.
The primary water source is from...
The mixing vault consisted of a below grade concrete sump into which the groundwater was pumped from the dewatering wells. A metering pump dispensed the neutralizing agent into the effluent based on...
In situ air sparging (IAS) is used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from groundwater aquifers. Conceptually, the standard IAS process is simple — clean air is injected into an aquifer...