Several types of wire conductors are used to connect electrical systems. Common ones include single wires, twisted pairs, coaxial cable, flexible flat cable, and bundled wires. Single or multiconductor cables are feasible when few connections are needed. However, as product complexity increases, direct wiring becomes costly and unwieldy and other interconnection systems become necessary. Flat cables, sometimes called ribbon cables, contain numerous conductors embedded side by side in flexible strips of plastic insulation. These cables can be mass terminated at low cost. Flat cables carry more current and usually weigh less than round cables having conductors of corresponding size. Nevertheless, flat cables are more commonly used to carry digital signals rather than power. In digital applications, cable qualities that affect signal degradation are more important than current ratings. Cable surge impedance, for example, should match that of connected circuits. Also, if cable capacitance is too high, it can cause crosstalk that garbles data. High-speed signals call for flat cables with low transmission loss. Conductors in flat cable can be round or rectangular. But rectangular-wire cable costs more, so it is generally used only where cables
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Flat cables are used in computers for internal connections to peripherals. They consist of highly stranded, individually-insulated conductors that are laid parallel and then fused in a flat, flexible ribbon form. Flat cables are also referred to as ribbon cables.
Control and Instrumentation Cables
Control and instrumentation cables are used to supply power to devices, such as analytical instruments and process controllers, used in control and instrumentation systems. They are typically designed for specific industrial protocols and are equipped with shielding to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference between the enclosed wires and external fields.
Audio cables transmit audible signals such as voice and music. They are designed to minimize noise and interference that can impair sound quality. Audio cables connect an audio source such as a stereo or microphone to an audio receiver or output such as speakers. Most products are shielded to prevent electromagnetic interference (EMI), typically with a foil and/or braided shield.
Multiconductor cables contain two or more conductors. Each conductor consists of a single wire or a combination of wires.
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7.5 Multiconductor Transmission-Lines
A multiconductor transmission-line is a transmission-line with more than two parallel cylindric conductors as shown in Figure 7.13. In a multiconductor...