From Properties of Glass

Chemical Composition of Glass

Glass is an amorphous material, which means that the structure of glass lies between that of a crystalline material and a liquid. Glass is often considered as a super-cooled liquid. At high temperature, glass changes into liquid form where the glass atoms are free to move around. When this liquid glass is cooled down, the atoms rearrange themselves into more efficient packing. However, below a specific temperature, called fictive temperature, atoms do not rearrange themselves. This leads to a short-range order of glass atoms.

The chief raw material used in the manufacture of glass consists of silicon dioxide, limestone, and soda ash.

The primary reason for the popularity of glass is that its properties can be varied according to requirements. The correct combination of raw material and processing technique can be used to yield the desired properties. Glass can be made as strong as steel or more delicate than paper. It can be woven like the web of a spider or it can be molded into a mirror that would weigh in tons. It can be made into a transparent material or given any color.

The properties of glass are governed chiefly by its composition. To manufacture glass, you need the following types of ingredients:

  • Formers

  • Fluxes

  • Stabilizers


A former forms the base material of any glass. It forms the major percentage in any glass-forming mixture. Silica is the most commonly used former in the glass industry. Other formers include boric acid and phosphoric acid.

Products & Services
Glass Materials
Glass materials have a random, liquid-like (non-crystalline) molecular structure. They are excellent thermal insulators and electrical insulators, and have high dielectric strength. At ordinary temperatures, glass materials are relatively strong, inert, biologically inactive, and corrosion resistant. 
Glass Tube and Rod
Glass tube and rod are hollow or solid stock shapes of fused silicate materials. They are used in laboratory, sight glass, level gage, X-ray tube, optical, lamp, pharma, vacuum tube stem assembly, and industrial process applications.
Glass Sheets and Plate Glass
Glass sheets and plate glass consist of flat glass materials in the form of thin or wide slab planar structures.
Mineral Wool and Glass Wool
Mineral wool and glass wool are made from slag, rock, glasses or minerals that have been melted and spun into fibers.
Glass Powders and Precursors
Glass powders and glass precursors typically consist of oxides with a random, liquid-like or non-crystalline molecular structure. Glass powders and glass precursors are used in a wide variety of applications, so they come in a range of particle sizes and particle distributions.

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