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Technical Articles

Littelfuse, Inc. has published these technical articles:

(Circuit Protection)
From this Article:
The debate sparked around fuses versus molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) seems to travel around an endless path. Overcurrents are inevitable in electrical systems, so which is the best overcurrent...
(Circuit Protection)
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All electrical systems eventually experience overcurrents. Unless removed in time, even moderate overcurrents will quickly overheat system components and damage the insulation, conductors and...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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The exponential growth in renewable wind and solar energy generation has triggered a corresponding demand for battery energy storage systems (BESSs). With dropping fossil fuel consumption, new country...
(Circuit Protection)
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This Fuses for Battery Energy Storage paper addresses how to adequately size fuses for overcurrent protection to maintain the safe and uninterrupted operation of a battery energy storage system...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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Death and injuries make ground (earth) faults one of the most essential hazards to mitigate. High-resistance grounding provides significant protection for equipment and personnel. Unfortunately,...
(Circuit Protection)
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How to Calculate Fuse Sizes for Photovoltaic Installations...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Prevention through Design with Special-Purpose GFCIs...
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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Ground faults can be dangerous. A short to ground in a solidly-grounded system creates large currents that can damage equipment and cause a shutdown. A ground fault can also create an arc flash, which...
(Surge Suppressors)
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Lightning's perfect storm for destruction is on the solar field. Solar panels' large-and often exposed and isolated-location make surge protection critical for it to last its lifespan....
(Circuit Protection)
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Have you attended an electronics or design tradeshow lately? Have you visited a big-box retailer or browsed an online electronics vendor?...
(Circuit Protection)
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DC fast chargers are on their way to becoming the highest-power devices people will interact with outside of industrial settings....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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This Note is an overview of the sources and nature of various transient overvoltages, and the problems that may result. Transients in electrical circuits result from the sudden release of previously...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Given that line cards are highly susceptible to transient voltages, network hazards such as lightning and power cross conditions pose a serious threat to equipment deployed at the central office and...
(Circuit Protection)
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Gases, petroleum products, and airborne dusts tend, by their very nature, to be explosive if sources of sparks or excess heat are present. Over the years, these hazards have led to some catastrophic...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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Tim Deschamp from Evans Enterprises, Tulsa, Oklahoma, was working with a customer to help them resolve and reduce a critical issue with an electrical hazard in their furnace control room. An earlier...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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A phase-to-phase fault on a 480-V system with 20,000 amperes of fault current provides 9,600,000 watts of power. Imagine that there is no arc protection and the fault lasts for 200 milliseconds before...
(Diodes)
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The designers of automotive electronics face many technical challenges during the system design process, including designing methods of protection against a variety of electrical hazards. The three...
(Storage)
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Battery-based energy storage systems are in demand but their design is still considered to be in its infancy because the technologies are evolving rapidly...
(Safety Sensors and Switches)
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Our Building and Home Automation Application Guide provides an overview of the Littelfuse technologies used in various building and home automation applications. It is designed to help you quickly...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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In previous Technical Briefs, it was introduced that Littelfuse offers a family of ESD suppression technologies including ceramic MultiLayer Varistors (MLV's), silicon (SP72x SCR/Diode and SP05xx TVS...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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As cable providers enter the local exchange market, protection of CATV (Community Antenna TV) equipment becomes even more critical in order to ensure reliable operation of equipment and uninterrupted...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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As USB transmission speeds and communication baud rates between host and peripherals increase, the reliability and robustness of devices when exposed to circuit transients become more important. As...
(Surge Suppressors)
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AC power line disturbances are the cause of many equipment failures. The damage can be as elusive as occasional data crashes or as dramatic as the destruction of a power supply, computer terminal, or...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Littelfuse offers specific Varistors and Classes of Fuses to address over-voltage and over-current transients in the Industrial environment. This application area is typically characterized as AC...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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CPE is defined as any telephone terminal equipment which resides at the customer's site and is connected to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Telephones, modems, caller ID adjunct boxes,...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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In many office and industrial locations, data lines (such as RS-232 and ethernet) and AC power lines run in close proximity to each other, which often results in voltage spikes being induced onto the...
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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As consumers become increasingly dependent on wearables, circuit designers are tasked with incorporating advanced circuit protection technologies that safeguard the device as well as the user....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs) are commonly used to suppress transients in many applications such as: Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors (TVSS), Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), AC Power Taps, AC...
(Circuit Protection)
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Learn more about the new IEC 62368-1 standard, what tests are included in the standard, and how the standard allows for greater safety and design innovation....
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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This application note discusses ESD and transient protection using the SP720. For a given level of voltage or power, there is a defined degree of protection compatible to that need. For the SP720, the...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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IEEE 1394 products (PCI adapter cards, hubs/routers, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the data port. The ESD pulse can be introduced directly into the open...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Universal Serial Bus (USB) products (PCI adapter cards, digital cameras, peripherals, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the data port. The ESD pulse can be...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Universal Serial Bus (USB) products (PCI adapter cards, digital cameras, peripherals, etc.) can be susceptible to ESD events when the cable is disconnected from the data port. The ESD pulse can be...
(Thyristors)
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The thyristor family of semiconductors consists of several very useful devices. The most widely used of this family are silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs), triacs, sidacs, and diacs. In many...
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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5x20 mm fuses continue to be the most widely used components for primary and secondary circuit protection. Although the technology is over 50 years old, the current usage is still estimated to be...
(Thyristors)
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Gating, latching, and holding currents of thyristors are some of the most important parameters. These parameters and their interrelationship determine whether the SCRs and triacs will function...
(Thyristors)
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The SP720, SP721, SP723, and SP724 are protection ICs with an array of SCR/Diode bipolar structures for ESD and over-voltage protection of sensitive input circuits. They have 2 protection SCR/Diode...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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IEC 62368-1: Global safety standard applies to a wide range of electrical and electronic equipment up to 600 V...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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The purpose of the International Electrotechnical Commission lEC 1000-4 (previously known as lEC-801) standard is to establish a common reference for evaluating the performance of industrial-process...
(Circuit Protection)
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In the past, automobiles were made up of many independent electronic systems. Even the assembly lines that were used to manufacture the vehicles required the operation and management of multiple...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN AN ARC-FLASH RELAY...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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Learn how one customer narrowly avoided nearly $1 million in damages and months of downtime....
(Safety and Personal Protective Equipment)
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Hydraulic fracturing is undergoing a shift toward a more environmentally-friendly way of extracting natural gas and petroleum from the earth by changing its fracturing methods....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Varistors are voltage dependent, nonlinear devices which have an electrical behavior similar to back-to-back zener diodes. The symmetrical, sharp breakdown characteristics shown in Figure 1 enable the...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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Current flowing to ground has only two paths-it can flow to ground through a ground fault, or it can flow to ground through distributed capacitance. Current flowing to ground through distributed...
(Electrical and Electromagnetic Sensing)
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The NFPA 70 National Electric Code (NEC) has been updated for 2020. The NEC update adds a new requirement for Arc Energy Reduction regarding the use of fuses. The new requirement is effective January...
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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The Pin in Paste method, also called through-hole reflow technology, has become increasingly important during the past few years. Reaching a higher degree of automation with existing manufacturing...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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This application note addresses the various requirements for protecting the Universal Serial Bus (USB) from overcurrent and over voltage environmental threats.The solutions presented cover both USB...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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The CA and NA series of MOV varistor discs with silver electrodes are specifically designed for custom assembly and packaging. To take advantage of the excellent performance and reliability of...
(Circuit Protection)
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How in-line fusing cuts installation time up to 40 percent and overall wiring costs by 35 percent....
(Thyristors)
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This document guides the reader about the typical steps involved with selecting a Littelfuse varistor to serve most applications....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN AN ARC-FLASH RELAY...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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ESD Suppressor Selection Guide...
(Circuit Protection)
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How to Determine and Increase Short Circuit Current Ratings for Industrial Control Panels...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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In recent years, electronic systems have migrated towards the manufacture of increased density circuits, with the same capability obtainable in a smaller package or increased capability in the same...
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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Panel design is an art. A well-designed panel strikes a balance of form, function, and cost. Find out more by downloading our application guide....
(Surge Suppressors)
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There are many variables that go into determining the right surge protection device (SPD). With the Littelfuse Surge Protection FAQs and Definitions Guide, you will learn about SPDs which will help...
(Thyristors)
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This application note presents design tips and facts on the following topics: * Relationship of IAV, IRMS, and IPK * dv/dt Definitions * Examples of gate terminations * Curves for Average Current at...
(Thyristors)
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One of the many applications for Teccor thyristors is in fluorescent lighting. Standard conventional and circular fluorescent lamps with filaments can be ignited easily and much more quicklyby using...
(Thyristors)
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Since the SCR and the triac are bistable devices, one of their broad areas of application is in the realm of signal and power switching. This application note describes circuits in which these...
(Semiconductors)
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One of the most useful and versatile instruments for testing semiconductor devices is the curve tracer (CT). Tektronix is the best known manufacturer of curve tracers and produces four basic models:...
(Surge Suppressors)
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This guide is similar to "The ABCs of MOVs", offering specific information on Multilayer suppressor device technology and is intended to be a supplement to the Littelfuse Multilayer data sheets....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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The material in this guide has been arranged in 3 parts for easy reference; Section A, Section B and Section C. "A" is for Applications This section provides general guidelines on what types of MOV...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Electrostatic Discharge(ESD) is the transfer of electrical charge between any two objects. A common example of this is the static shock that a person experiences after walking across a carpet and then...
(Circuit Protection Devices)
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The importance of effective transformer and control transformer protection cannot be over emphasized. After motors, transformers are typically the second most common application where proper...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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As any first-year engineering student can tell you, electrostatic discharge (ESD) is an electrical transient that poses a serious threat to electronic circuits....
(Thyristors)
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There are two major categories of transient suppressors: a) those that attenuate transients, thus preventing their propagation into the sensitive circuit; and b) those that divert transients away from...
(Batteries and Accessories)
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This application note explains the nuances of the LPS clause of the UL2054 standard - which can sometimes be difficult to interpret - as it relates to the various circuit techniques that can be...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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This note details the common tests of varistor parameters and describes suitable test methods using simplified test circuits. All tests are performed at 25 o C, unless otherwise specified. The test...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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This white paper informs specifying engineers, original equipment manufacturers, designers, and end users about the most important features in arc-flash relay technology so that they can select the...
(Relays and Relay Accessories)
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A resistance-grounded power system has a critical element that is often ignored-the neutral-grounding resistor. A resistance-grounded power system should have it's neutral-grounding resistor...
(Automotive Equipment and Products)
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Some of the frequently asked questions (FAQ) about our product...
(Automotive Equipment and Products)
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Glossary. Look up a term by initial letter....
(Connectors)
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Mobile device engineers can protect their designs by using TVS diodes to safeguard the USB lines and digital temperature indicators to protect the USB Type-C connectors....
(Heating and Cooling Equipment)
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RB Series surface mount end-banded thermistor elements are designed for use on hybrid substrates, integrated circuits or printed circuit boards. They have a solder coated contact techniques in...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) protection devices such as shielded cables, crowbars, filters and clamping devices have been widely used for a number of years to solve EMI problems....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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This article discusses the advantages of SMPD with advanced isolation packaging and how implementing this technology with your EV design results in significantly higher power density in a smaller...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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The adoption of electric and hybrid electric vehicles depends on a network of charging stations. Consumers don't want to run out of juice in a place where they cannot recharge their vehicles...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Benefits of Littelfuse components - fire & smoke alarms...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Choosing the correct fuse for your application can be overwhelming and time-consuming, even for a seasoned electronics design engineer....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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IoT technology has entered the home creating the smart home with products for convenience, security, lighting control, entertainment, and environmental control....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Learn more about e-bike market trends, block diagrams, and the benefits of recommended Littelfuse products....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
The purpose of this Fuseology section is to promote a better understanding of fuses and some of the more common application details...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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In order to reduce warranty repair costs and improve user satisfaction, vehicle manufacturers must find increasingly efficient solutions to help protect many power functions against damage from...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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It's not unusual that solar photovoltaic (PV) systems would require fuses - after all, these installations can carry substantial electrical loads, so overcurrent protection is critical to their safe...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) is an electrical transient that poses a serious threat to electronic circuits....
(Thyristors)
From this Article:
General Electronics Thyristor Training...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Born from the industrial age, transformers are one of electrical engineering's most useful inventions. They are used in all types of electrical equipment applications ranging from HVAC, water pumps,...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Ground Faults in VFDs on Resistance-Grounded Systems...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
How GFCIs Protect People From Electrical Hazards in Commercial Kitchens...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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What is the relationship between AT (Ampere*turn) and Tesla or Gauss? What magnet strength will activate a 15 AT reed switch at 5 mm? There is not an answer that is both simple and accurate....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) protection devicessuch as shielded cables, crowbars, filters and clampingdevices have been widely used for a number of years to solve EMI problems....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
In today's world, ensuring data integrity and safety under all conditions is emerging as a critical concern. The supercapacitor offers key benefits for rugged environments, high backup power, standby...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Buildings are evolving into networks of electric and electronic systems to help reach net zero goals....
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
From this Article:
Green Hydrogen technology is a promising alternative in renewable solutions. Hydrogen can contribute to reducing CO2 emissions in a number of ways....