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Cladding / Hardfacing Process:

Hardening / Heat Treatment?

Materials:

Function / Performance:

Regional Preference:

Help with Cladding and Hardfacing Services specifications:

Surfacing Process Capability
   Cladding / Hardfacing Process       
   Your choices are...         
   Diffusion Bonding       Suppliers perform diffusion bonding or solid-state welding, a process that applies high pressure and temperature across the material to be joined. Typically, a hot press or hot isostatic press (HIP) is used in the diffusion bonding process. The materials deform plastically, bringing the surfaces into close contact all along the joint. At the elevated temperature, diffusion or atomic movement occurs, creating a metallurgical bond without fusion or melting. 
   Electron Beam Cladding       Suppliers perform electron beam cladding, a process that is similar to laser beam cladding. Sheet, wire, or powder is placed on the base metal surface to be clad and into the base alloy with an electron beam. Alternatively, powder or wire is fed or injected into the beam and fused onto the base alloy surface. 
   Explosive Bonding       Suppliers perform explosive bonding or forming, a process in which the sheets or plates to be bonded together and/or formed are placed against a rigid mold. An explosive is used to rapidly deform (force) the material against the mold and bond the material together.  
   Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)       Suppliers perform flux cored arc welding (FCAW), a process that joins metal parts together by melting base and filler metals with an arc struck between a consumable filler metal wire and the base alloy workpiece. The filler metal wire or consumable electrode is fed continuously and fused with the workpiece. FCAW uses a wire with a central core filled with flux, which usually eliminates the need for a shielding gas supply. Usually, equipment suitable for FCAW is capable of performing MIG processes and vice versa. 
   Hardfacing       Suppliers perform hardfacing, a process that fuses or sprays a deposit, coating, or cladding onto an area of a base alloy. Laser and arc welding processes are commonly used to hardface materials. Hardfacing is often used to rebuild and repair surfaces or surface damage. Usually, the hard-facing alloy is harder than the underlying base alloy. Surface layers may also be deposited to enhance electrical or thermal properties, improve wear or corrosion resistance, or provide other special surface characteristics.  
   Laser Cladding       Suppliers perform laser cladding, a process that deposits material onto the surface of a part or workpiece. Laser cladding of metals produces a 100%-dense metallurgical-bonded coating with minimal dilution and enhanced resistance to corrosion, abrasion, and wear. Direct laser forming (DLF) from a powder bed and direct metal deposition (DMD) with spray-injected powder are two types of laser cladding processes. In the DLF process, a series of binder-free layers are deposited and then melted in the required pattern based on CAD data. In the DMD process, a laser melts a defined volume of a metal substance onto an existing form in layers. Metal powder is sprayed coaxially to the laser beam and melted onto the component. Minimal heat input and reduced processing time are two primary advantages of laser cladding over standard or traditional weld cladding. In specific applications, laser-cladding processes such as DLF restore parts to their original dimensions without secondary operations. Complete fabrication or repair of complex molds, tools or dies, and rapid prototyping are common applications for laser forming or cladding. Often, surface or mold repair requires the ability to duplicate a surface texture on a mold, and may include cladding or adding material to the fill cavities and then patterning the surface. DLF processes are better suited for the fabrication of new tools or prototypes. 
   Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) / MIG       Suppliers perform gas metal arc welding (GMAW), a process  commonly known as metal inert gas (MIG) welding, or referred to as short-circuit transfer. MIG arc welding joins metal parts together by melting base and filler metals with an arc struck between a consumable filler metal wire and the base alloy workpiece. The filler metal wire or consumable electrode is fed continuously and fused with the workpiece. Externally supplied gas or gas mixtures provide shielding. Standard MIG welding does not transfer metal across the arc; rather, metal is deposited only when the wire touches the work. Spray-transfer MIG welding sends a stream of tiny molten droplets across the arc from the electrode to the weld puddle. Typically, equipment suitable for MIG welding is capable of performing FCAW and vice versa.   
   Plasma Arc Welding       Suppliers perform plasma arc welding, which is similar to TIG or GTAW welding, but uses a more collimated plasma stream to fuse workpiece and/or filler alloys. The torch delivers a high level of heat to a small area, producing a high-quality weld with a minimal heat-affected zone. The tight plasma stream is created by initiating the arc and plasma within the electrode, then forcing the stream and arc through a small orifice and transferring the arc to the workpiece. 
   Pressure Welding       Suppliers perform pressure welding, a technique which includes solid-state welding processes such as cold press welding, friction welding, and ultrasonic welding. 
   RF / Induction Heating       Suppliers clad materials using radio frequency (RF) or induction heating techniques. 
   Rolling / Roll Bonding       Suppliers perform rolling or roll bonding, a process in which several metal or alloy sheets or plates are passed through a rolling mill. The metal can be pre-heated or hot rolled. The pressure and heat at the nip forces the metals together, creating a strong metallurgical bond. 
   Soldering / Brazing       Suppliers perform soldering or brazing processes in which a clad or overlay layer is soldered onto the base metal surface using solder sheet, paste, or powder. The molten solder alloy wets and flows across the heated work surfaces, bonding the layers together.  Soldering applies heat to metal parts and causes the resulting joint to draw-in the softened solder through surface wetting or capillary action. After the metal cools, the resulting joint is not as strong as the base material, but provides adequate strength, electrical conductivity, and water-resistance for specific applications. 
   Spin Casting       Suppliers perform spin casting to produce centrifugally-cast components such as cylinders, barrels, or other hollow structures that are cast from materials with different melting points. The term “bimetallic” indicates that two different metals are inseparably bonded together in a high-temperature furnace. A lower-melting alloy is used to form the internal clad or inlay liner. The barrel or part is furnace-heated to melt the inner or clad alloy. Then, the part is spun on high-speed centrifugal casting rolls to produce a cladd or inlay layer with uniform dispersion, density, thickness, and hardness. 
   Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) / Stick       Suppliers perform shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or stick electrode welding, one of the most widely-used welding processes. The flux covering the electrode melts during welding, forming gas and slag that shield the arc and molten weld pool.  After welding, the slag must be chipped or brushed off the weld bead. The flux coating also provides a method of adding scavengers, deoxidizers, and alloying elements to the weld metal. 
   Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)       Suppliers perform submerged arc welding (SAW), a process by which metals are joined by an arc or arcs between bare metal electrodes or electrodes and the workpiece. Shielding is supplied by a granular flux that is usually fed to the point of fusion from a flux hopper. Filler metal comes from the electrode and sometimes from a second filler rod. 
   Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) / TIG       Suppliers perform gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, a process that joins metals by melting base and filler materials by striking an arc between a tungsten electrode and the workpiece. Normally, the tungsten electrode is not part of the completed weld. Typically, filler metal is used. Inert argon gas or inert gas mixtures are used for shielding. 
   Transferred Arc       Suppliers use a transferred arc process to hardface or clad materials. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted surfacing, surface repair, or specialty joining processes. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Hardening / Heat Treatment?       Suppliers can harden or heat-treat a cladded or hardfaced product. Selective induction or localized laser heating processes can be employed to harden or heat-treat only the clad layer. In other cases, the whole product will be furnace heat-treated with only the clad layer responding to the heat treatment. The non-hardenable core or base metal will remain more ductile and tough. 
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Cladding / Overlay Material
   Materials       
   Your choices are...         
   Aluminum       Aluminum is a silvery-white, ductile metallic element with good conductive and thermal properties. It is used to form many hard, light, corrosion-resistant alloys. 
   Braze       A braze or brazing alloy is clad or bonded to one or more surfaces of a base metal. The completed clad metal, bimetal, or toplay product facilitates braze bonding to other components or assemblies in subsequent processing steps. 
   Carbide / Hardmetal       Carbides and carbide materials include silicon carbide, tungsten carbide, and titanium carbide as well as other compounds of a metal (Ti, W, Cr, Zr, etc.) or metalloid (B, Si) and carbon. Carbides have excellent wear resistance and high hot-hardness. Cemented carbide or hardmetals are cermets consisting of carbide particles bonded together in a cobalt, nickel, or alloy matrix. 
   Composite / Metal Matrix       Composite materials typically consist of a matrix and a dispersed, fibrous, or continuous second phase. The second phase may reinforce (strengthen or stiffen), alter electrical or magnetic properties, or enhance wear or erosion resistance. 
   Copper / Copper Alloy       Copper is a ductile, malleable, reddish metallic element that is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. Brass and bronze are copper alloys.  Brass has zinc as its main alloying agent. Brass comes with good strength, excellent high temperature ductility and reasonable cold ductility, good conductivity, excellent corrosion resistance, good bearing properties, and low magnetic permeability. Bronze is the general term for copper alloys. A variety of bronzes beyond the traditional tin bronze are available. Examples include silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, and manganese bronze. 
   Nickel / Nickel Alloy       Nickel is a constituent of many alloys. 
   Precious Metal (Gold, Silver)       Precious metals and alloys are rare metallic elements and include silver, gold, platinum, palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium, and ruthenium. They are durable, extremely resistant to corrosion and oxidation, and of high economic value. Precious metals and alloys have higher melting points than other metals. Metallic elements such as silver and gold are internationally recognized forms of currency under ISO 4217 from the International Standards Organization (ISO). Precious metal alloys are used in decorative, dental, and industrial applications 
   Refractory Metal       Refractory metals include tungsten, molybdenum, and tantalum. 
   Solder       A solder or soldering alloy is clad or bonded to one or more surfaces of a base metal. The completed clad metal, bimetal or toplay product facilitates solder bonding to other components or assemblies in subsequent processing steps. 
   Steel - Stainless       Stainless steel is a family of corrosion-resistant steels that contain a minimum of 10% chromium. Nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, and other elements that may also be present. 
   Steel - High Carbon / Alloy       High carbon or high alloy steels can develop high hardness or specialized properties providing wear, impact and/or corrosion resistance. 
   Steel - Tool       Tool steel is a group of high-carbon steels that provide combinations of high hardness, toughness, or resistance at elevated temperatures. 
   Titanium Alloy       Titanium is a hard, lustrous, silvery, element that is relatively abundant in the Earth's crust.  It is known for its lightness, strength, and corrosion resistance. For this reason, it is used widely in the aerospace industry and the medical fields (e.g., replacement joints).  When alloyed with other metals, especially steel, it adds strength and oxidation resistance. 
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted materials. 
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Function / Performance
           
   Your choices are...         
   Abrasion / Erosion Resistant       The cladding or hardfacing is resistant to damage by abrasion or erosion. Erosion is damage or material removal that occurs because of the impact of particles or slurry against a surface. 
   Anti-Fouling       Anti-fouling cladding or hardfacing is used to prevent the accumulation of aquatic animals and plants. Typically, copper or cupronickel alloys are used to prevent fouling in marine environments. 
   Anti-slip (Abrasive, Roughened, etc)       Anti-slip cladding or hardfacing produces a textured, abrasive, or roughened surface layer to prevent personnel from slipping and falling on floors, steps, and walkways. Anti-slip surfaces may also be used on material handling component or grippers to grab a product or material. 
   Blast Mitigation / Armor       Products are designed to provide protection against explosive blasts or ballistic percussion. They are used to line or armor the interiors or exteriors of military vehicles such as tanks and jeeps. They are also used in detonation chambers and naval ships. 
   Conductive / Electrical       The cladding or hard-facing layer is electrically conductive. The alloy cladding may also be engineered for low contact resistance. 
   Corrosion / Chemical Resistant (Rust Preventive)       Corrosion-resistant cladding or hard-facing prevents rust from reaching the metal or underlying substrate, or provides a sacrificial layer. Clad or hardfaced layers are corrosion and chemically resistant, and provide a barrier to protect the substrate. Zinc or aluminum coatings provide a sacrificial layer that galvanically protects the ferrous surface, even if the layer is breached in places.  Zinc phosphate, barium metaborate and strontium chromate (all pigments) are common ingredients in corrosion-inhibitive coatings. These pigments absorb any moisture that enters the coating film. Lubricant, oil and grease coatings provide a water repellent barrier that inhibits corrosion. Rust preventative coatings are designed to minimize rust or iron alloy corrosion when applied directly to ferrous metal such as carbon or alloy steels. 
   Friction Reducing / Low Friction       Friction-reducing or low-friction claddings or hard-facings are designed to reduce the friction that occurs when a surface slides against another material. 
   Heat Resistant / High Temperature       The cladding or hardfacing is resistant to damage by heat. Typically, the clad or hardfaced layer is formulated for use in high temperature environments. 
   Impact Resistant       The cladding or hardfacing is resistant to impact. 
   Magnetic       The cladding or hardfacing layer is magnetic. 
   Non-magnetic       The cladding or hardfacing layer is non-magnetic. 
   Wear / Tribology       The cladding or hardfacing is resistant to wear or erosion. Wear is usually defined as caused from a sliding action between two or more components.  
   Specialty / Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary features. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Regional Preference
           
   Your choices are...         
   North America       Companies are located in the United States, Canada or Mexico. 
   United States Only       Companies are located in the United States. 
   Northeast US Only       Companies are located in the Northeast United States, namely Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. 
   Southern US Only       Companies are located in the Southern United States, namely Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington D.C., and West Virginia. 
   Southwest US Only       Companies are located in the Southwest United States, namely Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. 
   Northwest US Only       Companies are located in the Northwest United States, namely Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. 
   Midwest US Only       Companies are located in the Midwest United States, namely Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. 
   Canada Only       Companies are located in Canada. 
   South / Central America Only       Companies have facilities in South American countries such as Argentina, Brazil, or Chile; or in Central American countries such as Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, etc. 
   Europe Only       Companies are located in Europe, namely Germany, Ireland, Italy, United Kingdom, etc. 
   South Asia Only       Companies are located in South Asia, namely India, Pakistan, Nepal, etc. 
   Near East Only       Companies are located in the Near East, namely Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, etc. 
   East Asia / Pacific Only       Companies are located in East Asia, namely China, Japan, Taiwan, etc. 
   Other       Other unlisted country or region. 
   Search Logic:      Products with the selected attribute will be returned as matches. Leaving or selecting "No Preference" will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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