From Feedback Control of Computing Systems


The control actions of the proportional or integral controllers are based on the
current error or past errors. In derivative control the controller output is proportional
to the rate of change of the error. The idea behind derivative control is that
the controller should react immediately to a large change in the control error;
in essence, predicting that the error will continue to increase (or decrease) and
act accordingly. Although this quick reaction can result in fast response times,
it can also result in undesirable overreaction, especially if the system output has
significant stochastics.

The derivative control law has the form


where the derivative control gain KD defines the ratio of the input magnitude
to the change in the error (Figure 9.18). Since the derivative controller adjusts
the control input according to the speed of error variation, it is able to make an
adjustment prior to the appearance of even larger errors. Practically, the derivative
controller is never used by itself since if the error remains constant, the output
of the derivative controller would be zero.

The transfer function of a derivative controller can be found by taking the
Z-transform of Equation (9.14) with...

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Pressure Controllers
Pressure controllers accept input from pressure sensors, transmitters, gauges, and other devices and subsequently control adjustment to the pressure to maintain or achieve the desired pressure level.
Universal Process Controllers
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Flow Controllers
Flow controllers monitor and maintain flow-rate variables, typically in process applications.
Temperature Controllers
Temperature controllers accept inputs from temperature sensors or thermometers, and then output a control signal to keep the temperature at the desired level.

Topics of Interest

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9.5   SUMMARY Integral controllers adjust the control input based on KI times the sum of the control errors. Integral control can eliminate steady-state error but can also increase settling...

9.2.3   PI Control Design Using Root Locus In pole placement design, the desired closed-loop poles are determined based on an a priori specification of desired properties of the closed-loop...

9.1.2  Transient Response with Integral Control The elimination of steady-state error comes at a price in that integral control slows system response. The reason for this is that the integrator...

9.6   EXTENDED EXAMPLES 9.6.1   PI Control of the Apache HTTP Server Using Empirical Methods This example extends Section 8.7.2 in which proportional control is used to manage the Apache...