Technical Articles

Caterpillar Electric Power has published these technical articles:

(Power Generation and Storage)
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Among other conditions, in order to connect the electrical outputs of two or more electrical AC power generating sources, their voltages, frequencies and phase angles should be closely matched....
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Noise levels can be an influential factor in purchasing a generator set. The manufacturer records sound pressure levels at fixed distances around the generator set and averages them to calculate the...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Significant upfront cost of installing a real-time data-collection system-advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) may reach 60 to 100% of a region's annual power supply costs. Low-tech distribution...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Cat® generator sets assembled at the Caterpillar facility in Piracicaba, Brazil, known as Power Systems Brazil (PSB), use alternators that feature an auxiliary coil (or auxiliary winding) and...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Power stations suffer failures and defects and a leading cause is inadequate maintenance. The best strategy is customized to the special features of each plant to balance safety, costs, and benefits....
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Energy efficiency is rapidly becoming an essential part of building and operating competitive industrial plants. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) makes good bottom-line sense. The changes give the plant...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Failsafe Adaptive Load Sharing/Droop Operation is programmed into the EMCP 4.4 system to intelligently switch units to a control scheme that enables uninterrupted, stable operation for as long as it...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Hospitals have grown from one building to health care centers. Energy needs have changed dramatically with the need for a high-quality power system backed up with an equally reliable emergency and...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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We are used to viewing electrical power just like any other utility delivered to our home or business. And that is the right way to look at it. Just like water and natural gas, electrical power is...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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High Point Regional Health renovations included an overhaul of power and HVAC systems. Upgrades required a building for the generators and switchgear, and renovation of the chiller plant. Three new...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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When specing a generator set with an enclosure for use in a hot climate, outside air temperature defines the ambient capability. Site conditions, including altitude and relative humidity, will cause...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Harmonics are a result of an electrical device's nonlinear behavior and the effects can lead to utility violations and equipment damage. They are reflected onto the utility grid and accumulate as...
(Alternative Power Generation)
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Microgrid that combine renewable energy with diesel or gas generator sets and energy storage capabilities can deliver clean, cost-effective electricity to remote locations with limited or no access to...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Gas power generation provides a resilient, environmentally and economically sound solution for data center facilities. The cost of natural gas is at a low point and the supply is abundant. Caterpillar...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Natural gas can be used to replace fuels that produce much higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy sources are important tools for reducing greenhouse gases, but they need a backup...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Increasing Internet demands have strained server and storage capacity and the need for servers is growing exponentially. New data center power and cooling designs provide expanded capacity and...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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NASA's long-term, manned space missions are challenged by waste-treatment and power requirements and need an extreme biological system to turn solid waste into a power source. What used to be...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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"Survey identifies high-level findings impacting the electrical and power industries. The most important factors regarding selection of electrical or power systems are product quality, service...
(Batteries and Accessories)
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Batteries can fail or underperform for many reasons. With proper maintenance and testing, many of these failure modes can be reduced or eliminated, enabling customers to have total confidence in the...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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A Fortune 500 company with an aging data center was experiencing challenges to the reliability of power in its facility. There was an obvious need for reliable emergency power......
(Power Generation and Storage)
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In order for generator sets to function as intended in hot climates, users must assess the ambient capability of the model prior to acquisition. The ambient capability, or ambient clearance of a...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Your gas engine-generator sets' most valuable commodity is time - specifically uptime producing power and revenue. It follows that the goal of engine maintenance is to enable as much uptime as...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Digester methane is taking its place as a mainstream renewable fuel. Today's fuel treatment and engine-generator technologies help make biogas a highly attractive and earth-friendly energy source for...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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All facilities with an emergency backup power system require a Transfer Device to monitor the incoming utility power. When it identifies a loss of power, the Transfer Device will send a start signal...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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What is an Internally Excited (IE) alternator and how does it perform? This paper will provide you with a detailed description of IE and demonstrate how the Cat® SR5 IE performance can be...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The global climate is changing, and many are working to reduce emissions and build up resiliency across sectors, including electricity generation, transportation, industry, and commercial and...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Diesel generator set manufacturers publish volumetric fuel consumption (vfc) data in their specification sheets. A problem arises when trying to compare vfc data from different manufacturers. The fuel...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The energy needs of the data center (DC) industry continue to grow at a brisk pace. In the past, preferred DC locations were near inexpensive, reliable power sources. Today, such locations are more...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The purpose of this paper is to explain perceived differences in fuel consumption between AC and DC generator sets used in telecommunication (telecom) applications. A review of the overall energy...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Temporary connection boxes, also known as docking stations, are a preferred method that facility managers can utilize to comply with NEC 2017 provisions for LRSS and to enhance the overall system...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Gas engines with state-of-the-art combustion and exhaust aftertreatment technologies are equipped to meet new and stricter emission standards....
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Established by the European Commission, emission standards for engines used in new non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) have been gradually introduced to limit harmful substances in engine exhaust gas...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Trade show format white paper on: North American emissions regulations, proposed changes from the EPA, the California ARB new source performance standards, and a delay in adoption of tier 4 emission...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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When specifying a generator, it is often easy to overlook one of the most critical parts, the excitation system. Without the excitation system, you will not be able to produce power, and without the...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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In facilities with a high demand for power, such as a hospital or data center, communication among generator sets is crucial for maintaining power levels. In these types of applications, generator...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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This paper will take a closer look at how the evolution of longer-life nuclear power plants (NPPs) impact emergency diesel generators (EDGs) used for station blackout (SBO) support. Extending the life...
(Alternative Power Generation)
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Engineers should offer building owners the ability to reduce energy load by shifting it from peak to off-peak hours....
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Since 2014, NFPA 70, Section 240.87 (Arc Energy Reduction), has required a method to reduce clearing time of arc flash energy. This applies when the highest continuous-current trip setting for which...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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High peak demand customers incur a peak service charge from the utility. A peaking system with proper sizing, testing, and maintenance will help save on utility costs....
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Remote connectivity and monitoring for generator sets offers multiple opportunities to enhance reliability, increase efficiency, regulate emissions, optimize performance and reduce cost in distributed...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The market for large-scale standby electric power has taken a purposeful turn toward natural gas gensets. For decades, diesel engine generators have dominated the standby market and natural gas...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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"Nuclear power plants (NPP) need reliable emergency backup power in order to maintain a safe condition after external power failure and to meet related regulations. Comparing two real-life projects...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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An overcurrent event on a synchronous generator set occurs any time the load demands more current than the nameplate rating of the generator set. The overcurrent can be caused by the starting of a...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The art of paralleling generator sets has evolved over time. A process that once required discrete synchronizing components, panels full of induction disc protective relays and analog meters is now...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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As growth in distributed energy and other factors increase the risk of instability on electric utility systems, nations and grid providers are tightening grid-code requirements. Developers of...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Operation during and after a seismic event is the typical requirement for emergency equipment installed in a nuclear facility. Data from shake table testing of a large emergency generator set while...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The concern for the anthropogenic release of methane (CH4) into the environment and methane's potential for global warming - 21 times higher than that of carbon dioxide - continues to draw...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Coal provides 25 percent of global primary energy needs and generates 40 percent of the world's electricity, according to the World Coal Institute. The People's Republic of China produces the largest...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Many factors go into the selection of a generator which will impact the cost, performance and life of the product. Two such factors which are directly related, and often misunderstood, are the...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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The latest regulation, Tier 4 Final, effectively requires an aftertreatment system to reduce emissions to compliance levels for all engines. Rental applications are commonly used in low load...
(Power Generation and Storage)
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Cogeneration systems, also known as combined heat and power (CHP) systems, generate both electricity and usable thermal energy. CHP systems provide a cost-effective method of reducing operating costs,...
(Electrical Distribution and Protection)
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Air-quality regulations have a major impact on the choice of engine-generator sets for standby electric power. Federal, state and local rules can dictate the level of emission control required and can...