Technical Articles

Kruss USA has published these technical articles:

(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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The words body care already say it: consumers couldn't care less about the scientific numbers that describe foam. They want to brush their teeth with just the right amount of foam. They want smooth,...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Measurement of wetting and adhesion when bonding or coating...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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Contact angle and surface tension for the processing of metal surfaces...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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Contact angle and surface tension for optimizing plastic coatings...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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Methods for measuring wetting and adhesion...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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Methods for monitoring wetting, adhesion and cleaning...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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Quality control of the interface chemistry of glass bonds and treated surfaces...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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Contact angle and surface tension in glass cleaning and coating...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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From spreading, adhesion, interfacial tension to the final functions of the finished coating...
(Education and Training)
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Our glossary defines and explains the terminology used in the field of surface chemistry. It is intended to help in classifying and using technical terms in the appropriate context. We would be...
(Calibration and Testing Services)
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Standard test method for hydrophobic contamination on glass by contact angle measurement...
(Education and Training)
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A bubble pressure tensiometer is an instrument for determining the dynamic surface tension. The maximum internal pressure of a gas bubble which is formed in a liquid by means of a capillary is...
(Education and Training)
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When an interface exists between a liquid and a solid, the angle between the surface of the liquid and the outline of the contact surface is described as the contact angle ? (lower case theta). The...
(Product and Material Testing)
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As a result of its high surface free energy, glass is outstandingly suitable for joining and coating. However, hydrophobic substances easily adsorb on glass surfaces, which makes bonding and coating...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The CMC (critical micelle concentration) is the concentration of a surfactant in a bulk phase, above which aggregates of surfactant molecules, so-called micelles, start to form. The CMC is an...
(Education and Training)
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A drop volume tensiometer is an instrument for determining the dynamic interfacial tension. Drops of a liquid are produced in a vertical capillary in a surrounding second liquid. The volume at which...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The dynamic surface tension (SFT) or interfacial tension (IFT) is the value of the SFT or IFT referred to a particular surface age or interface age. In the case of liquids with surface-active...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Interfacial technology for efficient oil field exploitation...
(Education and Training)
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Our glossary defines and explains the terminology used in the field of surface chemistry. It is intended to help in classifying and using technical terms in the appropriate context. We would be...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The increase in surface polarity due to ozone treatment is demonstrated on POM and PBT plastics based on contact angle measurements. The results also show a different effect of duration on the surface...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Rapid growth and development in the medical device industry require state-of-the-art materials that perform at their best. Our whitepaper details how optimizing surface properties of these materials...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Optimization of the ink, the printing process and the substrate with surface science methods...
(Product and Material Testing)
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With a feasibility study we show how contact angle measurements can be used for uninterrupted inline process controls by utilizing our fast Liquid Needle dosing unit and the ADVANCE API software...
(Education and Training)
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Emulsifiers, wetting agents, foaming agents, collecting agents - there are a vast number of names for surfactants depending on the areas in which they are used. Surfactants reduce the surface tension...
(Education and Training)
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In the broader sense, interfacial tension is defined as the work which must be expended to increase the size of the interface between two adjacent phases which do not mix completely with one another....
(Calibration and Testing Services)
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Explore our tried, tested, and true measuring techniques and discover the ones which are best suited to your applications...
(Product and Material Testing)
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A supplier for the automotive industry was confronted with a very high reject rate when applying a decorative foil on flame-activated polypropylene. After unsuccessful efforts with test inks, non-...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Surface science methods to improve wetting, dispersion stability and foam prevention...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The pendant drop is a drop suspended from a needle in a bulk liquid or gaseous phase. The shape of the drop results from the relationship between the surface tension or interfacial tension and...
(Product and Material Testing)
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A new study shows how reusable, water-repellent cleanroom coveralls could be used as medical protective clothing...
(Product and Material Testing)
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When brazing workpieces or soldering in microelectronics, the adhesion is brought about by adhesive forces at the interface. Pre and post-preparatory cleaning, wetting and the interfacial bonding...
(Education and Training)
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The surface age is the period of time from the beginning of the production of a surface or interface to the time of the observation or measurement. With surfactant solutions, the surface tension...
(Education and Training)
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Surface free energy (SFE) is the work that would be necessary to increase the surface area of a solid phase. SFE has a decisive influence on the wettability of solids by liquids. It is therefore an...
(Education and Training)
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The work which is required to increase the size of the surface of a phase is referred to as the surface tension. As a measure of work per unit area or force per wetted length, surface tension has the...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The nature of material surfaces is as equally important for processing and final use as the volumetric properties. The cleanliness, surface free energy and roughness are decisive factors for adhesion...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Wood surfaces are pre-treated and coated for decorative purposes or to increase durability. When formulating primers, glazes and varnishes, knowledge of the surface chemical properties of these...
(Education and Training)
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Surfactants are so-called surface-active substances, as they reduce the surface tension of liquids or the interfacial tension of two-phase systems due to adsorption at the surface or interface...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Surface modification of polymers by means of plasma treatment significantly improves the wettability by water. As a result of this discovery, higher biocompatibility of the plastics in medical...
(Education and Training)
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Wettability describes the attempt of a solid to form a common interface with a liquid which comes into contact with it. One measure of the wettability by a particular liquid is the contact angle. A...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The very low wetting forces on a carbon fiber can be measured with the help of a K100SF single-fiber contact angle measuring instrument. Differences in mean value extend beyond the scatter band and...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Soft contact lenses do not lie directly on the cornea but float on a thin film of tears. The length of time for which the lens is compatible, particularly when worn for a long time, depends on the...
(Education and Training)
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The wetted length is the length of the three-phase boundary line for contact between a solid and a liquid in a bulk third phase. Due to the surface tension, a force, which acts on the solid at an...
(Product and Material Testing)
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Synthetic or natural fibers and fabrics are coated in order to produce functional textiles for particular tasks, such as rainproofing or providing resistance to fire. As well as the coating effect...
(Product and Material Testing)
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In the manufacture and processing of metals, the surface of molten alloys comes into contact with other surfaces such as furnace walls, casting molds and soldered joints. Different grades of wetting...
(Product and Material Testing)
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The SFE is determined for 16 materials and plasma treated polymers. The differences - which are quite large in some cases - are explainable considering that ink tests do not take the polar part of SFE...
(Calibration and Testing Services)
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The work of adhesion W12 is the work which must be done to separate two adjacent phases 1 and 2 of a liquid-liquid or liquid-solid phase boundary from one another. Conversely, it is the energy which...