Technical Articles

PI (Physik Instrumente) L.P. has published these technical articles:

(Linear Actuators)
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PI Ceramic piezoelectric actuators offer today's motion engineer and scientist a practical way to achieve extremely high positioning accuracy, shortest possible response times, best dynamic operation...
(Linear Actuators)
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MicroPositioning Solutions * Manually driven linear stages from with 6 to 150 mm travel * Optional piezo drives providing 1 nanometer resolution * Motorized translation stages from 5 to 306 mm (12")...
(Linear Actuators)
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The piezoelectric effect is often encountered in daily life. For example, in small butane cigarette or gas grill lighters, a lever applies pressure to a piezo-electric ceramic creating an electric...
(Linear Position Sensing)
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This technote reports on recent advancements in nanopositioning technology, such as parallel kinematics, active trajectory control, new control algorithms for vibration suppression and tracking error...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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Traditional linear and rotary "micropositioning" stages are based on servo and stepper motor-driven leadcrews and ballscrews and mechanical bearings. They are classical components for precision motion...
(Motor Controls and Drives)
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PI has developed a powerful 3D Print System Interface software working direct from STL files. It uses the ACS motion controller's Smart Processing Commander (SPC) software that offers complete system...
(Sensor Chips)
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The new area of silicon photonics is being driven by us. We walk around with supercomputers in our pockets. We consume streaming media. We participate in social networks. We benefit from personalized...
(Linear Actuators)
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PI and Fraunhofer IOF Cooperate on New Large Scale Adaptive Optics Project...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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New Motion Control Approaches Deliver Improved Accuracy and Faster Time to Market...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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This paper describes the results of self-heating tests for various cooling measures....
(Optical Components)
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Piezo motion-based mechanisms provide a variety of features that are highly sought after in life-science and medical engineering applications, such sterile ceramic designs and lubricant-free drives....
(Linear Actuators)
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Motion drive and control technologies are advancing rapidly. This means engineers have access to an expanding spectrum of options to leverage previously unattainable performance and form factors....
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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Many processes in advanced research and industrial manufacturing can only be performed in a vacuum, such as thin-film sputtering and ion milling, and technologies formerly reserved for exotic...
(Medical)
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Dental biomechanics deals with the interactions between dental materials, treatment instruments or dentures and the reaction of teeth, biological tissues, etc. to mechanical stresses. A wide spectrum...
(Bearings and Bushings)
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Most motion applications are perfectly well-served by mechanical bearing guidance; but there are many cases where precision, angular repeatability, and geometric performance must be optimal or where...
(Linear Actuators)
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How 6-DOF Alignment Systems Contribute to the Success of the Event Horizon Telescope...
(Optoelectronics)
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PI's Fast Multichannel Photonic Alignment (FMPA) technology was introduced in 2016. It quickly amassed prestigious honors like the R&D 100 Award and the Lightwave Innovations Award for its...
(Robotics)
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The latest generation of PI hexapod controllers with integrated EtherCAT interface now make it very easy for users to integrate hexapods into automation systems without the need for to perform...
(Linear Actuators)
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Piezoelectric multilayer actuators are the driving force behind the most challenging nanopositioning applications. These types of actuators have been in use for about two decades and have reached...
(Linear Actuators)
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Astronomical telescopes usually employ active position control for primary mirror surfaces using motorized mechanical actuators. The motion needed is generally quasistatic, to compensate gravitational...
(Motor Controls and Drives)
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When faced with challenging alignment applications, precision motion system designers often have to live with an unsatisfactory compromise between accuracy, force, and dynamics. A new hybrid approach...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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Compact 6-Axis parallel precision manipulator with nanometer resolution helps the goal of designing a single universal instrument for the use in different full-field X-ray diffraction imaging methods....
(Microscopy)
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Electron microscopy allows investigations with extremely high lateral resolution down to a range of less than one nanometer. However, this places great demands on the imaging elements. And, of course,...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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EtherCAT®: Ethernet for Control Automation Technology and its Advantages for Precision Motion Systems...
(Optical Components)
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Industry-leading speed and capability is an enabler for "photonomics" from wafer to packaged device....
(Motor Controls and Drives)
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Piezo, Voice Coil & Linear Motors for High Dynamics & Precision...
(Microscopy)
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Precise Sample Positioning is Crucial for Conclusive Images...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Piezo ceramics - like all ceramics - are brittle materials, very good at handling compressive loads, but sensitive to shear, bending, and tensile loads. To protect the piezo material from unwanted...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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A discussion with leading piezo experts on ceramics, nanopositioning, intelligent piezo systems, and weather stations...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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The word "piezo" is derived from the Greek word for pressure. In 1880 Jacques and Pierre Curie discovered that pressure generates electrical charges in a number of crystals such as quartz and...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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In a recent test, we used a gyroscope to provide feedback to a hexapod controller in order to compensate for multi-degree-of-freedom disturbances and to maintain a horizontal top plate during the...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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3D Computerized Tomography (CT) and micro computed-tomography (micro-CT) systems are used to study the internal structures of a wide variety of material samples....
(Linear and Rotary Motion Components)
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Motion simulation is crucial in the evaluation of many devices, including vibrating testing of vehicles or airplanes, response testing of accelerometers or gyroscopes and image sensors such as those...
(Robotics)
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Optimization of MTF and throughput along with optical image stablization and calibration are benefits of using hexapod micro-motion robots - a novel motion technology that provides all six degrees of...
(Motor Controls and Drives)
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Hexapods provide motion in all 6 Degrees of Freedom, X,Y,Z, Pitch, Roll, Yaw. 6-DoF motion platforms and positioning systems are often referred to as Stewart Platforms. Hexapod motion is based on 6...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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There are several methods to quantify the surface accuracy of aspheres, both contact and non-contact devices are used by different manufacturers...
(Inspection Tools and Instruments)
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Hexapod Robotics are used in many alignment and inspection applications due to their central aperture and motion cababilities in all degrees of freedom. They are stiffer and more compact than...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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...gains in productivity and quality come from high performance positioning systems, motion controllers, and software along with higher speed communication and synchronization between motion...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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An insidious nanoscale instability process is the quasi-asymptotic settling due to lubricant flow processes in drive, alignment and adjustment elements such as lead-screws and micrometer drives. It...
(Semiconductors)
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Problems and requirements regarding actuators and description of PI NEXLINE® Nanopositioning Drive...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Flying may once have been a privilege of the gods but today, traveling by air is taken for granted. The motto is larger, faster, and further but also safety first. Whatever component used in an...
(Lasers)
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Piezo driven laser focus shifter module advances speed and quality in laser machining applications...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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PI Ceramic multilayer actuators, PICMA® for short, are piezo actuators where the active layers consist of thin ceramic tapes. As a result, they only require low drive voltages in the range of 100...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Motorized Miniature Actuators based on Piezo-Ratchet Effects Provide Reliable and Remote Alignment of Beam Paths, Sensors, Optical Assemblies...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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The combination of "coarse" precision screw drives for long distance motion and ultra-high resolution actuators such as piezo and voice-coil-based systems allows combining travel ranges up to hundreds...
(Linear Actuators)
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Increasingly, DAC's are a limiting factor in nanopositioning resolution, especially in the latest millimeter-travel stages. A newly patented technology adds up to 10 bits of resolution to virtually...
(Uncategorized)
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Motion simulation is crucial in the evaluation of many devices, including vibrating testing of vehicles or airplanes, response testing of accelerometers or gyroscopes and image sensors such as those...
(Linear Position Sensing)
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Precision motion systems always exhibit some amount of positioning inaccuracy (or position error) due to various factors. These errors can be measured using external measurement devices, such as a...
(Electrical and Electronic Contract Manufacturing)
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Sub-nanometer precision and accuracy plus high positioning bandwidth have made piezo nanopositioners essential for track profiling applications in spin-stand applications. However,(1) relentlessly...
(Motors)
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Piezo motors can provide motion in extremely small increments, smaller than one nanometer. This is due to solid state effects in the piezo material, where small changes in the electric field affect...
(Spectroscopy)
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Dr. Markus Simon, head of the PI miCos beamline instrumentation group explains a special double hexapod PKM system designed for synchrotron x-ray spectroscopy, for complex material testing and...
(Linear Actuators)
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PI wins contract from European South Observatory (ESO) for more than 2000 custom-designed hybrid actuators that will adjust 798 quarter ton segments in the primary mirror of the Extremely Large...
(Linear and Rotary Motion Components)
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What machine builders want in a linear stage...
(Linear Position Sensing)
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The noise measured by the external metrology (laser) contains the sum of all mechanical and electrical sources - the amplifier noise, the servo noise, the sensor noise, the vibrational noise from...
(Material Handling and Packaging Services)
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Alignment of collimated photonic elements remains a costly manual process for many device manufacturers. Automation here is as attractive as it is in other photonic packaging operations-the improved...
(Machine and Motion Controllers)
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Vacuum applications are of growing importance due to technologies that can only be applied in vacuum or cryogenic environments....
(Electrical and Electronic Contract Manufacturing)
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A breakthrough in multilayer lead zirconate titanate (PZT) production technology replaces polymer coating with ceramic insulation and doubles the operating temperature range....
(Solids and Powder Processing Equipment)
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Nanotechnology requires extreme high resolution and accuracy and at the same time long travel range. Improvement in accuracy can be achieved with mechatronic design principals and integration of piezo...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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What has become known as the "Incompleteness Theorem" asserts that no statement can prove its own truth. One of the well-known analogies is that no one can lift themselves up in the air by their own...
(Electrical and Electronic Contract Manufacturing)
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This paper presents a new design for a linear ultrasonic micromotor for precision positioning developed by Physik Instrumente (PI)....
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Different Concepts to Solve Tough Positioning and Alignment Problems in the Nanometer Range...
(Optical Components)
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Investigations on interactions and forces at the level of individual molecules assist in gaining a great deal of information on chemical and mechanical properties or biological functions. Special...
(Motors)
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Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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Many emerging fields of structural and active mechanical subsystem analysis, validation and design can benefit from flexible, six-degree-of-freedom motion mechanisms capable of generating specific...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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Size matters in miniaturization and automation - smaller is usually better. Traditional electromagnetic motors have limitations when it comes to shrinking dimensions while maintaining high efficiency...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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PI recently built a large 300mm diameter rotary air bearing stage for use in a synchrotron beamline test facility. The beamline, when finished, will be used for Macromolecular Crystallography....
(Linear and Rotary Motion Components)
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On December 3, 2015, the European Space Agency (ESA) launched the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft, marking the birth of the next phase of an incredible project that will one day help scientists look at the...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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In order to maintain precision and reliability- the two key factors to the success of industrial processing - motion and positioning equipment has to be designed accordingly. These properties are...
(Microscopy)
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PI explores the key principles of motion platforms in advanced microscopy...
(Carbides, Ceramics and Glass Materials)
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In vitro diagnostics (IVD) opens up numerous possibilities to diagnose and detect diseases and other conditions at an early stage. Tests are performed using samples of blood, saliva, urine or tissue...
(Linear Actuators)
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Flexure-guided and motion-amplified actuators and positioning stages provide convenience and performance for the OEM designer and scientist....
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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A piezo nanopositioning stage is defined as a positioning device capable of nanometer or sub-nanometer resolution....
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Medical engineering and life-science disciplines have multi-faceted requirements for motion and positioning equipment: the spectrum spans from ultrasonic transducers to simple low-energy drive...
(Linear Actuators)
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New developments in the semiconductor industry and in the research areas of materials and life sciences are leading to greater and greater need for nanopositioning devices. Many applications like...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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PiezoWalk principle shows advantages for Monochromator crystal fine adjustment....
(Encoders and Resolvers)
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An In-house Development for Picometer Resolution over Large Travel Ranges...
(Linear Position Sensing)
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Designers of precision motion and positioning equipment usually deal with three types of errors: repeatability errors, non-linear accuracy errors, and linear errors caused by thermal effects....
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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While conventional positioning systems convert the rotary motion of a motor into linear motion using a spindle, PILine® positioning systems are based on a special direct drive. This completely...
(Optical Components)
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PI's Fast, Multi-Channel Photonics Alignment (FMPA) technology is a set of firmware-level commands built into its highest-performance digital nanopositioning and hexapod controllers. These commands...
(Linear and Rotary Motion Components)
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Almost 4 years after Curiosity landed on Mars, it is still up and running - and while it has not discovered current life forms, the basic question whether Mars could have once supported an environment...
(Robotics)
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Hexapods, six-legged parallel-kinematic machines, are quickly gaining ground in a broad range of industrial automation applications after "learning" how to directly communicate with PLC or CNC...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Piezo actuators convert electrical energy directly into mechanical energy and vice versa and allow for motions in the sub-nanometer range. There are no friction elements that limit resolution....
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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The single molecule force spectrometer described in this paper uses of fast and highly linear piezo stage. This multi-axis stage (model P-313 PicoCube) can run in open loop and provide closed-loop...
(Microscopy)
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Very often individual classical microscopic methods are no longer sufficient in terms of optical resolution or information content. The combination of different microscopic methods yields more...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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This white paper is intended to provide a better understanding of what this wear is and what it means in terms of product lifetime. Furthermore, it focuses on showing why and under which circumstances...
(Inspection Tools and Instruments)
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A common application in which an air bearing is specified is scanning. Scanning involves moving either a work-piece or an optic at a constant velocity, while a reading or writing operation takes...
(Linear Actuators)
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Astronomical telescopes usually employ active position control for primary mirror surfaces using motorized mechanical actuators. The motion needed is generally quasistatic, to compensate gravitational...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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Thanks to this study, magnetic linear drives now allow for motion in 6 axes with positioning and guiding accuracy,never before achieved, in the range of a few nanometers. This is based on a...
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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When working with air bearings, we often describe the quality of motion as one of the key factors in selecting an air bearing; specifically, the straightness and flatness of travel of linear bearings...
(Microscopy)
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How to Combine Motorized Stages, Piezo Stages and Sample Holders...
(Optical Components)
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Many scanning, alignment and spectroscopy applications require optical power metrology coordinated with motion, with positioning precisions that often necessitate piezo-class motion devices....
(Motors)
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Description, features and fields of application for Variable Metrology Stand for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Motors...
(Linear Actuators)
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Linear stages and automation actuators are essential components in additive manufacturing (AM) processes, providing the quick and precise mechanical responses necessary for generating intricate...
(Microscopy)
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Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used for surface measurements with resolution down to atomic levels - dimensions that are far beyond even the highest resolution optical microscopes. AFM is a...
(Motor Controls and Drives)
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PI found a solution based on its compact, high stability PiezoWalk linear motor - a tried and proven technology used on many semiconductor and high-energy physics applications in the past....
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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During surgery, it is critical that the surgeon has real time evaluation of blood vessels in order to make assessments related to the flow of blood. Piezo transducers are at the core of modern blood...
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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Ultrasound has been used in nature for navigation above and under water. Bats and dolphins are but two species who perfected the transmission, reception, and processing over millions of years....
(Positioning Stages, Slides and Guides)
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As new satellite programs become more popular, such as NASA's CubeSat program, the need for satellite test systems is becoming more urgent....
(Piezoelectric Devices)
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What is the Difference between a Piezo Actuator and a Programmable Piezo Shim?...
(Linear Position Sensing)
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When faced with a multi-axis motion application, many users stack motion stages, and in fact that is a fine approach for assemblies of just a few axes. But as applications become more complex, so do...
(Video Cameras and Accessories)
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Google's Pixel 2 has one of the most advanced cameras found in smartphones today. In a recent YouTube video by "Nat & Friends" on how Google built the Pixel 2 Camera, PI's H-860 "shaker" hexapod is...
(Microscopy)
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Super-Resolution microscopy allows insights into intracellular processes and interactions at a molecular level. During the past two decades, advances in the field have led to significantly higher...