From Building Security: Handbook for Architectural Planning and Design


Chapter 25: Construction Cost Estimating for Security-Related Projects
Chapter 26: Construction: Emergency Response Lessons Learned from September 11, 2001

Elizabeth J. Heider, AIA
Vice President, Skanska USA Building Inc.
Alexandria, Virginia

There is no such thing as absolute value in this world. You can only estimate what a thing is worth to you.

U.S. editor and essayist


Construction costs, and premiums involved for security design, are of primary concern to owners, design professionals, and builders. After risk analysis and vulnerability assessments are conducted, and security related design and construction recommendations are identified, building owners must ensure that their project goals and budgets will be met. To maximize budget control, security design recommendations should be defined and evaluated during early project phases.

Hardening of buildings, and related security needs, often result in added costs for new construction and retrofit projects. Security-related costs address the elements needed to secure a building from specific terrorist threats, such as blast, and chemical or biological agents, since projects must comply with applicable building and life safety codes. A standardized approach to identifying and estimating security design elements allows building owners to determine the level of risk they wish to assume, and closely monitor construction costs.


For public projects, especially federal government facilities, fixed capital construction budgets are often determined by long-range legislative appropriations. These fixed budgets essentially determine security risk levels a building project will be designed to sustain. Within this framework, the project team must identify...

Products & Services
General Contracting Services
General contracting services serve as a single point of responsibility for construction projects. These companies perform layout, scheduling, estimating, and sub-contracting activities. General contractors also complete the construction itself.
Construction Software
Construction software is used by architects, home builders, civil engineers, real estate developers, and contractors to manage and monitor building and construction projects.
Civil Engineering and Architectural Software
Civil engineering and architectural software is the set of tools used to design, simulate and analyze civil engineering structures such as bridges, roads and buildings.
Construction Management Services
Construction management services plan and coordinate construction projects as an owner’s representative. Responsibilities include contract negotiation, scheduling, budget adherence, and subcontractor management.
Facility Management Services
Facility management services perform building operations and maintenance, project management, subcontractor management, energy management, budget planning, commissioning and de-commissioning services for buildings and facilities.

Topics of Interest

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