From Multivariate Statistical Methods in Quality Management

5.8 Factor Analysis Case Studies

5.8.1 Characterization of texture and mechanical properties of heat-induced soy protein gels (Kang, Matsumura, and Mori, 1991)

Soy proteins play important roles in many foodstuffs because of their nutritional values and their contribution to food texture. Soy proteins' texture can be influenced by their processing conditions.

The texture of soy protein can be measured by a sequence of tests and corresponding mechanical properties.

Measurement of mechanical properties of gels. A compression-decompression test was carried out by using a compression tester. The tester had a cylindrical plunger with a cross-sectional area of 0.25 cm 2. The tests were performed at 20 C. The plunger descended at a rate of 1.2 mm per minute. The following four measures were recorded:

  1. Compression work. It is the mechanical work in each compression-decompression cycle.

  2. Resiliency (RS). It is the ratio of decompression work versus compression work.

    Compressibility ( CM) It is measured by the ratio of deformation versus the gel sample thickness.

    Force. It is determined as the force at yield.

The compression-decompression tests are conducted at different levels until rupture. Specifically, four levels of compression load are used. They are small (S), medium (M), large (L), and rupture (R). They correspond to 15%, 30%, 60%, and 100% of rupture force.

Since there are four measures and each measure is recorded at four levels of compression loads, each protein gel sample test produces 16 observations of data.

Soy gel processing condition. ...

Products & Services
Mechanical Testing Services
Mechanical testing is the process of physically applying a stimulus to a mechanical system. These stimuli can be displacements, heat, forces, pressures or other physical stress that may be placed on the object being tested. Mechanical testing can be used to verify the key performance attributes of the material, part or complete mechanical system in question.
Gel Electrophoresis Equipment
Gel electrophoresis equipment, instruments and supplies are used to separate macromolecules, either nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of size, electric charge, and other physical properties.
Food Additives
Food additives include flavoring extracts, syrups, emulsifiers, anti-oxidants, fortifiers and other substances that are added to food products to enhance processing, texture, flavor or other characteristics.
Texture Analyzers
Texture analyzers evaluate the cohesiveness, spreadibility, fracturability, tackiness, gumminess, firmness, pliability, consistency and other texture characteristics of foods, rubber, foams, coatings, grease, asphalt and other materials.
Gel Elastomers
Gel elastomers are highly viscoelastic polymer gel materials that have excellent shock absorption and damping characteristics. They are available in a variety of material types and grades.

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