From Cutting Data for Turning of Steel

1.5. Tool Steels

Tool steels are carbon, alloy, or high-speed steels, capable of being hardened and tempered. They are used to make tools for cutting, forming, and shaping of work materials. Tool steels are also used as the work materials where resistance to wear, strength, toughness, and other properties are selected for optimum performance.

According to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) classification, tool steels are divided into seven major groups, each group identified by letter-numeric symbols. Within the various groups there are subdivisions (Ref 8, p.431, Ref 14, p.6):

  1. Water-hardening tool steels, W

  2. Shock-resisting tool steels, S

  3. Cold-work tool steels:

    • Oil-hardening types, O

    • Air-hardening, medium alloy types, A

    • High-carbon, high-chromium types, D

  1. Mold steels, P

  2. Low alloy special-purpose tool steels, L

  3. Hot-work tool steels:

    • Chromium-base types, H10 H19

    • Tungsten-base types, H21 H26

    • Molybdenum-base types, H41 H43

  1. High-speed tool steels:

    • Tungsten-base types, T

    • Molybdenum-base types, M

The UNS designation of tool steels consists of the letter T (assigned to tool steel), followed by five digits. Water-hardening types are T723xx; shock-resisting types are T419xx; oil-hardening types are T315xx; air-hardening types are T301xx; high-chromium types are T304xx; low-alloy, special purpose types are T612xx; mold steels are T516xx; hot work types are T208xx; high-speed, tungsten-base types are T120xx; and high-speed, molybdenum-base types are T113xx.

The author studied the relationship between the tensile strength ( ?) and Brinell hardness (HB) of those tool steel grades, for which a sufficient number of data points were available, so the linear...

Products & Services
Tool Steels
Tool steels are wear resistant ferrous alloys based on iron and carbon with high levels of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium.
Ferrous Metals and Iron Alloys
Ferrous metals and alloys are iron-based materials that are used in a wide variety of industrial applications.
Specialty Steels and Other Iron Alloys
Specialty steels and other iron alloys have specialized or proprietary compositions or properties that are specifically engineered for certain service conditions.
Stainless Steel Alloys
Stainless steels are steels that contain a minimum of 10% chromium and are more resistant to corrosion than normal steels.
Carbon Steels and Alloy Steels
Carbon steels are steels in which the main alloying additive is carbon. Alloy steels are steels alloyed with other metals or materials in addition to carbon to improve properties.

Topics of Interest

The cutting tool materials for machining of steels are high-speed steels, cemented carbides, cermets, ceramics, and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride. 2.1. High-Speed Steels According to Metals...

1.3. Alloy Steels In 1988 the United States produced 10.9 million tons of alloy steel, or 10.9% of total steel production (Ref 7, p.147). It was much less than carbon steel (86.9%), but when...

The same properties that qualify tool steels for tools and dies are also used for other parts that require resistance to wear, stability during heat treatment, strength at high temperatures, or...

Steels that contain specified amounts of alloying elements -- other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, copper, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus -- are known as alloy steels.

Steels represent the most widely-used category of metallic material, primary because they can be manufactured relatively inexpensively in large quantities to very precise specifications (Ref 7,...