Technical Articles

Copper Mountain Technologies has published these technical articles:

(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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USB VNAs increase productivity and lower costs for test, quality control, and design applications, capitalizing on the ever-increasing performance of personal computers. Engineers using this format...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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This paper from Compass Technology Group presents a new measurement method based on the parallel plate capacitor concept, which determines complex permittivity of dielectric sheets and films with...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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Copper Mountain Technologies' VNAs can be readily automated and there are numerous options for users who wish to do so. To help illustrate the different automation methods and interfaces available,...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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The examples created in this document are based on the S5048, but apply to most of the Copper Mountain Technologies VNAs in a similar way. These tips will help you use your VNA with ease and help you...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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Usually, Copper Mountain Technologies instruments are locally automated on the same Windows-based PC to which the instrument is connected and the VNA control software is installed. Such functionality...
(Calibration Instruments, Standards and Reference Sources)
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In many applications it is necessary to make multiport measurements. The RNVNA is capable of performing these up to 16 ports. Each of the 16 ports will make individual vector reflection measurements...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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Electrical impedance is an important parameter used to describe individual electrical circuit components or a circuit as a whole. Impedance is a complex number, in which the real part is represented...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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The VNA output ports are capable of sustaining a pre-defined output power level as provided in the datasheet of the manufacturer. Exceeding the power ratings of the VNA ports can lead to incorrect...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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One application of a vector network analyzer (VNA) is the measurement of 75 ? coaxial transmission lines. In this article, we will discuss making these measurements using the most common type of VNAs,...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Measuring the performance of microwave materials requires a test apparatus that includes a measurement fixture and a microwave analyzer, which are usually connected with microwave or radio frequency...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Users of Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) often need to estimate and strive to optimize their instrument’s measurement speed. Many RF Engineers are interested in the tradeoffs between speed,...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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Power integrity measurements are essential in all modern electronics, including RF and Microwave circuits. Poor power integrity results in spurs and degraded phase noise. As is the case with RF and...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Pulsed S-parameter measurements are important when testing a DUT at a higher power than it can handle without damage in the steady state, or when the normal operating mode of the DUT involves RF...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Mixers are 3-port devices that incorporate nonlinear elements, typically diodes or transistors, to produce the sum or difference of two input frequencies. For example, in transceivers mixers are used...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Vector network analyzers (VNAs) are widely used in research, manufacturing, and service environments. These instruments contain stimulus signal sources and receivers with one or more frequency...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Connecting to an Antenna Under Test (AUT) integral to a Device (DUT) may involve some tradeoffs between measurement accuracy, electrical considerations, and mechanical ruggedness. In this paper, we...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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A common question from users of Copper Mountain Technologies' USB-based Vector Network Analyzers is whether the analyzer can be used as a signal source. Users' motivations for doing so vary, but most...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Vector Network Analyzers (VNAs) are used to measure the reflection and transmission coefficients, or S-parameters, of a Device Under Test (DUT). When the DUT is passive, the VNA may be the only tool...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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Everyone knows that a good VNA should have both excellent hardware performance and an easy to use software interface with useful post-processing capabilities. But there are numerous VNAs in the market...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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As the Internet of Things (IoT) starts to materialize, more and more consumer and industrial products are incorporating wireless interfaces such as Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS, or proprietary wireless radio...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
From this Article:
Wireless infrastructure encompasses a broad range of radio technologies, antennas, towers, and frequencies. Radio networks are built from this infrastructure and from mobile radiosâ€"the radios used...
(Calibration Instruments, Standards and Reference Sources)
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Copper Mountain Technologies provides metrologically sound, lab grade USB VNAs which support advanced calibration techniques, including TRL calibration. True TRL calibration requires a VNA with 2...
(Electrical and Electronic Test Equipment)
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The horn antenna is an antenna that consists of a flaring metal waveguide shaped like a horn to direct radio waves into a beam. 3D printing is a fast-growing technology for rapid prototyping of...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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A Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) natively measures complex S-parameters of a device under test (DUT) in the frequency domain mode by sweeping across various frequency points. While there is an...
(RF, Microwave, and Wireless Components)
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Thru-Reflect-Line (TRL) calibration has a number of advantages over the Short-Open-Load-Thru (SOLT) method often used in VNA calibration. For SOLT calibration, the standards must be accurately...
(Calibration Instruments, Standards and Reference Sources)
From this Article:
Copper Mountain Technologies produces lab-grade VNAs with outstanding measurement accuracy. As with every VNA, performing a good calibration is necessary for maximizing the accuracy of VNA measurement...