Technical Articles

MacDermid Alpha Electronics Solutions has published these technical articles:

(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
This study is an investigation and comparison of the performance of no-clean liquid wave soldering fluxes using a commercially available localized extraction and cleanliness testing system and surface...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Head-in-Pillow (HIP) defects are a growing concern in the electronics industry. These defects are usually believed to be the result of several factors, individually or in combination. Some of the...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Tombstoning, the phenomena where a chip component stands up on one end during the reflow cycle, is well documented and understood in tin-lead systems. It is reported to occur more frequently in...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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A technique that enhances the release of solder paste from stencils during the print process has been developed. The technique is based on applying variable high frequency and low amplitude vibrations...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Due to marketing and legislative pressures in Asia and Europe, the electronics industry has moved to adopt lead-free solders. These lead-free materials are considered by some to be environmentally...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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The debate on the effect of voiding on BGA reliability has continued for years. Many PWB assemblers strive to minimize voiding, particularly with the advent of lead-free processing and in fine feature...
(Electrical, Optical, and Specialty Materials)
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Board warpage in fiber-glass epoxy laminate boards known as "FR" boards, is familiar phenomenon seen in traditional electronics manufacturing. The growth of the LED general lighting market has...
(Electronics and Microelectronics Manufacturing)
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Electronic device footprints continue to shrink, requiring smaller and smaller solder deposits to be consistently produced during the stencil printing process. The transition to lead-free assembly...
(Metals and Alloys)
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This paper details an experiment that compares the hole fill performance of two engineered tin-copper alloys in a selective soldering process. The test vehicle design incorporates features that are...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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We present here the findings of Alpha's Alloy Development Program on the next generation of low temperature alloys that can be used in reflow soldering temperatures from 170 to 200oC. Approaches in...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Automotive electronics modules are exempt from the EU RoHS legislation, which restricts the use of six elements in electronics assemblies, including the use of lead (Pb) in solder alloys. However,...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Several new applications requiring solder materials that would perform for extended periods under harsh operating conditions have recently emerged. Clearly there is a need for a ROHS compliant solder...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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As handheld devices become increasingly smaller and complex, there is a shift in reliability requirements of solder pastes. Considering that thermal management and drop resistance of such devices...
(Industrial Cleaning and Surface Preparation)
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Controlled humidity and temperature controlled surface insulation resistance (SIR) measurements of flux covered test vehicles, subject to a direct current (D.C.) bias voltage are recognized by a...
(Metals and Alloys)
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The drop shock reliability of solder joints has become a major issue for the electronic industry partly because of the ever-increasing popularity of portable electronics and partly due to the...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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The July 2006 implementation of ROHS exempted automotive applications from converting to lead free technology. Nine years later, all major OEM and Tier 1 automotive manufacturers have converted or are...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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In a typical electronic assembly, many of the solder joints undergo multiple reflow cycles during the course of a complete manufacturing process from wafer bumping to the board level assembly. Effect...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Silver bearing alloys have been used in electronics soldering for many years. Silver has been used in tin-lead solders (Sn62Pb36Ag2) to combat silver scavenging from silver plated electronic...
(Industrial Adhesives)
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InGaN-based High Power blue LEDs exhibit a maximum light conversion efficiency of 40%, which decreases further at high drive currents. Thus, more than 60% of the electrical input power is dissipated...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Following regulatory directives that introduced lead-free solder in the electronics manufacturing industry, we built upon the process of developing a lead-free solder alloy that optimizes silver...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Despite being a continuous subject of discussion, the existence of voids and their effect on solder joint reliability has always been controversial. In this work we revisit previous works on the...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
Despite being a continuous subject of discussion, the existence of voids and their effect on solder joint reliability has always been controversial. In this work we revisit previous works on the...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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This paper presents a structured study covering the assembly of mid power LED packages on thermally conductive polyethylene terephthalate (PET/Polyester) and polyimide flexible substrates. The study...
(Electrical, Optical, and Specialty Materials)
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Voids in BGA/CSP package to substrate connections can cause issues with thermal management, drop shock resistance, and signal interference. Zero voids are always the best solution, but this is not...
(Electrical, Optical, and Specialty Materials)
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Green residues on circuit boards or SIR and copper corrosion coupons may indicate serious corrosion and electrical reliability problems or limited and benign copper corrosion products that do not...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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The use of Halogens in lead free solder paste has become a topic of considerable discussion among solder paste producers, electronic equipment OEM's and Non-Governmental Organizations. Industry...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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To achieve low PPM defects in solder paste printing of high density and fine feature sizes certain rules must be followed in the original manufacturing design. The stencil printer must be capable of...
(Metals and Alloys)
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In this paper we discuss the technical and design challenges associated with making accurate thermal resistance measurements across a multi-layered stack. The results of this laboratory study show the...
(Light Sources)
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New high and ultra-high power LED package designs provide high lumen density that can enable significant system cost reductions through fewer LEDs, smaller PCBs, and smaller heat sink size...
(Light Sources)
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New high and ultra-high power LED package designs provide high lumen density that can enable significant system cost reductions through fewer LEDs, smaller PCBs, and smaller heat sink size...
(Electrical, Optical, and Specialty Materials)
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LED chip-on-board applications (COB) typically involve assembling an LED die stack directly on to a substrate such as Metal Core PCB (MCPCB), FR4 etc. This schematic is shown in Figure 1 and compared...
(Metals and Alloys)
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High-Ag, low-Ag, high-Ag plus additives: Which alloy fits best certain application? Here we present a comprehensive report on the thermal and mechanical reliability of alloys ranging from 0.3 to 3.8%...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Recently, the industry has seen an increase in the number of Pb-free solder alloy choices beyond the common neareutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) alloys. New wave solder alloys have been developed with the...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
The Pin in Paste (PiP) technology is the process of soldering Pin through hole (PTH) components using the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) reflow process. The use of PiP process offers several...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Die attach material plays a key role in performance and reliability of mid, high and super-high power LEDs. The selection of the suitable die-attach material for a particular chip structure and...
(Light Sources)
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LED technology is seeing widespread adoption in range of end markets including lighting, automotive and display applications. LEDs offer several advantages such as energy efficiency, long life,...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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This paper presents a structured study covering the assembly of LED packages on thermally conductive flexible substrates. Multek's Polyimide and Polyester (PET) Q-Prime® flexible substrates were...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Environmental issues are increasingly becoming important to the organizations and individuals alike. Electronic assembly industry, as everyone else, is becoming more conscience about environmental...
(Metals and Alloys)
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Low temperature solder alloys are preferred for the assembly of temperature-sensitive components and substrates. The alloys in this category are required to reflow between 170 and 200o C soldering...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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SSL Assemblies need to meet high reliability requirements such as Energy Star Category A which dictates a B50/L70 lifetime of 35,000 hours for commercial and outdoor residential lighting. Solder...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Electronic assemblies used in automotive, telecommunications, high power LEDs, and other demanding applications require soldering materials that can withstand high temperature, vibration, thermal...
(Metals and Alloys)
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As printed wiring boards become increasingly densely populated, more ICT probing is being done on SMT soldered connections that may be covered with flux residues. These flux residues will physically...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
Despite being a continuous subject of discussion, the existence of voids and their effect on solder joint reliability has always been controversial. In this work we revisit previous works on the...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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The continued drive for more compact and lightweight handheld mobile devices has forcibly pushed the electronics assembly industry to look for novel packaging and assembly technologies. One of the...
(Coating Services and Finishing Services)
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To characterize the paste printing process, both the individual aspects of the process and the interactions between the aspects must be understood. The main aspects of the printing process are paste,...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Although the majority of high reliability devices are exempt from RoHS legislation, many manufacturers are being forced to investigate lead-free products and processes. As component suppliers change...
(Metals and Alloys)
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This study focuses on several process, design and materials selection considerations which control or potentially reduce voiding to meet industry and end-market acceptance criteria. More specifically,...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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The LED lighting industry and indeed, the electronics industry, prefers to have "shiny solder joints", indicated by a qualitative visual examination. No metrics exist to quantify "shininess" of the...
(Industrial Adhesives)
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Fierce competition in the electronics assembly market has increased demands on the SMT engineer. Engineers are forced to take advantage of new manufacturing technology almost as it becomes available....
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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Three studies are undertaken to understand the dependence of aperture fill and stencil release on solder paste print definition. The first study focuses on the role of pastes. Seven pastes are...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Wave or Machine soldering was patented in 1958 by the Electrovert Company. Wave soldering revolutionalized the process of soldering through hole components to printed wire boards. The number of...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Silver sintering technology is one of the most promising high performance lead-free dieattach technologies. The work presented focuses on the thermo-mechanical and electrical performance evaluation of...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
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The effects of solder flux residues on the electrical functionality of RF circuit boards are investigated in this paper. The electrical characteristics of the residues are tested in terms of the...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
The process challenges of lead-free wave soldering often require the use of new flux chemistries when compared with the relatively tolerant tin-lead wave soldering process. In some cases, the fluxes...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Manufacturers of soldering materials have been asked by electronics device manufacturers and contract electronics PWB assemblers for Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) data of solder pastes and other...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Manufacturers of automotive electronics are very concerned with reliability, as the devices they assemble will be used in harsh environments and many must function reliably for the safe operation of...
(Electrical, Optical, and Specialty Materials)
From this Article:
Surface-mount technology has become synonymous with the use of solder paste. Paste was developed to provide a high throughput and yields to increasingly complex printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies....
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Selecting the correct solder preform helps assemblers avoid the difficult task of dispensing paste in through holes....
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Optimizing fine-pitch electronics assembly requires a careful review of the complete process. Each variation of device, lead spacing, substrate, material and build rate schedule requires specific...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
The debate on the effect of voiding on BGA reliability has continued for years. Many PWB assemblers strive to minimize voiding, particularly with the advent of lead-free processing and in fine feature...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
It has been observed that, since the implementation of Pb-free processing, different flux chemistries produce different surface insulation resistance (SIR) results depending on the test coupon...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Three different reflow temperature vs. time profiles, a 1.5 °C/s ramp to 230°C, a 1.5 °C/s ramp to 252°C and a 90 s soak at 175°C with a 230°C peak, were used to reflow three lead-free solder pastes...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
Due to marketing and legislative pressures in Asia and Europe, the electronics industry is moving to the adoption of lead-free solders. These lead-free materials are considered by some to be...
(Industrial Cleaning and Surface Preparation)
From this Article:
Lead-free solder alloys, particularly those with higher silver and lower copper contents, have been shown to react with the copper on circuit boards to dissolve the copper much more quickly than...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Low temperature alloys are used to achieve peak reflow temperatures from 170 to 200°C. Sn-Bi alloy stands as logic choices due to its low melting point, higher strength and low cost. However, use of...
(Electrical, Optical, and Specialty Materials)
From this Article:
The stencil selection process can be confusing, particularly when creating a stencil for a new application. This tutorial, which covers stencils for SMT and advanced IC packaging applications, offers...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Head-in-pillow (HIP) defects are a growing concern in the electronics industry. These defects are usually believed to be the result of several factors, individually or in combination. Some of the...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
Using a cone and plate fixture on a variable speed rheometer, this study will examine the correlation between rheology and print volume and print volume repeatability of the pastes. The goal is to...
(Welding Equipment and Supplies)
From this Article:
Surface insulation resistance (SIR) is a critical material property for electrically reliable assemblies using a no-clean surface mount technology process. It has been shown in recent studies that the...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
This paper will describe the results of a series of experiments performed in an in-line convection reflow oven, using a typical lead free reflow profile, with three types of bottom terminated...
(Metals and Alloys)
From this Article:
As power density on semiconductors rises year-over-year, increased efficiency and reliability of Bottom Terminated Components (BTC) packages like QFN, LCS, QFP, and DPAK are becoming much more...