From Determination of Additives in Polymers and Rubbers

Two thermal methods have been extensively studied in recent years, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) - mass spectrometry (MS) and evolved gas analysis involving infrared spectroscopy (IR) - MS, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

9.1 Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Py-GC employing various detection systems is the technique usually used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse major components and low-level additives in polymers [1-3]. The technique utilises thermal energy to break down polymers to monomers and small oligomers. The mixture of pyrolysis products is directly passed into a gas chromatograph (GC) for separation. However, there are numerous low-level co-monomers and additives that may not be appropriately separated at the same time as the major monomers. These low-level co-monomers and additives frequently appear with poor peak shape under the chromatographic conditions established for analysis of the major monomers hence the interest in combining this technique with MS (such as a polar additive in a non-polar capillary column). Additionally, these peaks may have been overlooked because they exist as converted products in the chromatogram after the pyrolysis-induced reaction (such as vinyl acetate converted to acetic acid).

Ogawa and co-workers [4] used Py-GC-MS to analyse the components of ozone deteriorated nitrile-butadiene rubber sheet containing additives. There were three peaks related to the quinoline antioxidant in the program. They noted that the mechanical strength of the sheet became zero when the antioxidant level reached 50% of its original level.

Franich and co-workers [5] described two simple methods using internal standards for the quantitative analysis of 2,6-di- tert-butyl-4-methylphenol...

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Monomers, Intermediates, and Base Polymers
Monomers, intermediates, and base polymers are starting raw materials or binders for the production of compounded resins, plastics and elastomers, paints or organic coatings, adhesives and sealants;
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Analyzers
Volatile organic compound (VOC) analyzers are used to detect concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons in gas or liquid media.
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Laboratory and calibration gases are specialized for use as laboratory standards, as well as for detection, sample preparation, environmental monitoring and analysis applications.
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Gas chromatography detectors (GC detectors) identify solutes as they exit the chromatographic column. A chromatogram is generated plotting the signal versus time.
Oil Additives and Fluid Additives
Oil additives and fluid additives are chemical substances that are added to oils and industrial fluids to impart or improve certain properties. They are used with lubricants, coolants, thermal oils, greases, metal working fluids, and other application-specific fluids.

Topics of Interest

Overview Whilst it is not an additive, for completeness, the determination of water in polymers is briefly discussed here. Jeffs [1] has developed a versatile gas chromatographic unit (GC),...

Overview A variety of instrumental techniques have been used to determine functional groups in polymers and to elucidate the detail of polymer structure. These include infrared spectroscopy,...

3.7 Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography 3.7.1 Theory Pyrolysis is simply the breaking of large, complex molecules into smaller fragments by the application of heat. When the heat energy applied to a...

Overview In this chapter the instrumentation used for the determination of volatile materials present in polymers is discussed. These include: Monomers, e.g., styrene, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride.

A variety of instrumental techniques have been used to determine functional groups in polymers and to elucidate the detail of polymer structure. These include infrared spectroscopy, near-infrared...