From Engineering Computations: International Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering and Software: The Discrete Element Method: Numerical Modelling of Discontinua, Volume 21, Number 2/3/4, 2004

Dwayne D. Tannant
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,
University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada
Caigen Wang
Sons of Gwalia Southern Cross Operations, Southern Cross, Australia
Received February 2003
Revised July 2003
Accepted July 2003
Engineering Computations
Vol. 21 No. 2/3/4, 2004
pp. 318-342
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
DOI 10.1108/02644400410519811


Keywords Discrete manufacturing, Numerical analysis, Modelling

Abstract Simple discrete element models using PFC 2D models with bonded assemblies of particles were used to numerically simulate direct tension and block punching tests on thin spray-on tunnel liner materials to gain insight about the liner support mechanisms. PFC 2D input parameters were calibrated such that the rupture load and elongation at rupture were similar to the laboratory test data. The calibrated model of the liner material was then used to simulate a liner around a highly stressed tunnel in rock where stresses caused extensive fracturing near the top of the tunnel. The effect of the liner was analysed by modelling the tunnel with and without the liner and showed that the liner had minimal impact on fracture propagation in the rock because of the liner s highly deformable nature. However, the liner was able to retain the fractured rock in place.

Thin Spray-on Liners

Recent developments

Thin spray-on liners are a new form of underground rock support receiving increasing attention around the world. They have performance characteristics that lie between those of shotcrete and wire mesh. Various liner materials are currently being developed and tested in underground Canadian mines. They...

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Lining services are used to line pipes, tanks, and vessels for corrosion resistance. Some lining protection services also provide chemically-resistant linings for pipes, chutes, and hoppers, and even valves and actuators that are used in process manufacturing.
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Wear protection services suppliers provide installation or application of wear protective liners, tile liners, spray-on lining systems, and/or high build coatings to protect an underlying surface from wear or erosion.
Mining Machines
Mining machines include tunnel boring machines (TBM) and boring rigs, roof bolting rigs, rock crushing vehicles, and other heavy equipment used for tunneling and mine excavation.
Industrial Tapes
Industrial tapes are used for adhesive bonding, thread sealing, masking, packaging, wrapping, electrical insulation, ESD control and other specialized applications.
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Topics of Interest

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