From Physics of Solid-State Lasers


The lasing of trivalent chromium ions in an emerald crystal at the electronic-vibrational transitions 4 T 2 ? 4 A 2 was examined for the first time in Ref. 35. The adjustable lasing of the laser on an emerald crystal at the transition 4 T 2 ? 4 A 2 during laser pumping was investigated in Ref. 52 54, and of R-lines of chromium ions in Ref. 54,55. The energy characteristics of lasing of an emerald laser, with the crystal grown by the flux method, with valve pumping, was investigated in Ref. 56.

The emerald crystal (Cr 3+:Be 3Al 2(SiO 3) 6) is a chromium beryll, uniaxial, negative, has refractive indices n o = 1.58 and n e = 1.575. With a chromium ions concentration of 0.01 1%, the crystal is green. Its melting point is 1470 C which is 400 degrees lower than the melting point of the alexandrite crystal. The heat conductivity of the emerald crystal is almost six times lower than that of alexandrite and equals 4 W/m grad, and the thermal expansion coefficient is 2.6(2.9) 10 -6 deg -1. The Moose hardness of the emerald crystal is 8.0, density 2.68 g/cm 3. The emerald crystals are grown by two methods: hydrothermal and flux. The emerald crystals grown by the flux method have better optical quality and contain a smaller content of secondary impurities. Non-selective losses of the emerald crystals, grown by the...

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Sapphire Materials and Components
Sapphire materials and sapphire components consist of a single-crystal or monocrystalline form of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). As ceramic materials, they have superior hardness, mechanical and optical properties. Applications include jewel bearings, lasing rods, wear parts, wafer substrates and optics.
Solid State Lasers
Solid state lasers use a transparent substance (crystalline or glass) as the active medium, doped to provide the energy states necessary for lasing.  Solid state lasers are used in both low and high power applications.
Q-switches are devices used in the optical resonator of a laser to prevent lasing action until a high level of inversion is achieved in the lasing medium.
Optical Crystals
Optical crystals are transparent in different spectral regions, depending upon the crystal material.
Ion Lasers
Ion lasers function by stimulating the emission of radiation between two levels of an ionized gas. They provide moderate to high continuous-wave output of typically 1 mW to 10 W.

Topics of Interest

1.6 CHROMIUM LASERS IN RARE-EARTH-GALLIUM GARNETS Depending on the strength of the crystal field of the active medium, the energy position of the level 4 T 2 of the chromium ion Cr 3+ changes...

1.8 OPTIMISATION OF THE ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIATION OF CHROMIUM LASERS The energy parameters of the lasing of chromium lasers in the media examined by the authors were measured in almost all...

1.7 LASER ON CHROMIUM IONS IN A CRYSTAL OF POTASSIUM-SCANDIUM TUNGSTATE In order to widen the spectral range of lasing of solid-state lasers, it is interesting to examine a large number of crystals...

1.3 RUBY LASERS The lasing of forced radiation in the optical region of the spectrum was obtained for the first time in a ruby laser (Cr 3+:Al 2O 3). Ruby crystals are characterised by high strength,...

Shuji Oishi Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Wakasato, Nagano 380 8553, Japan 17.1 Introduction Gemstones are usually used for human...