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Help with Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Equipment specifications:

Instrument Type
   Instrument Type:       
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   Condition Monitor / Fault Detector       Condition monitors and fault detectors measure and record critical parameters and find faults in electrical, mechanical, optical or other systems. For example, in an electrical system, an arching circuit breaker is a type of fault. In a mechanical system, a failed roller bearing is a type of fault. Both mechanical and electrical faults produce characteristic sounds, which fault detectors discover by using air or structure-borne acoustic detection techniques. 
   Flaw Detection       Flaw detectors are instrument or systems that detect and measure flaws in materials. 
   Conductivity / Resistivity       Conductivity or resistivity instruments measure the conductivity or resistivity of materials.  
   Corrosion       Corrosion instruments measure or monitor corrosion. 
   Material Condition       Material condition testers evaluate material properties or conditions such as hardness, residual stress, strength, modulus or density. 
   Other       Other unlisted instrument types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
   Web Inspection?       NDT instruments for metals and webs are used in industrial environments to monitor thickness, defects or material properties during the continuous processing of primary metals or webs. Webs include plastic films, paper or paperboard, woven fabrics, metal foil or strip, nonwovens and other continuous sheet products. 
   Search Logic:      "Required" and "Must Not Have" criteria limit returned matches as specified. Products with optional attributes will be returned for either choice.
   Form Factor:       
   Your choices are...         
   Bench / Rack / Cabinet       Devices sit atop a bench or desktop, or are mounted in a rack or cabinet. 
   Crawler       NDT crawlers and scanners are inspection tools that automatically travel down pipelines or up tank walls while scanning nondestructive probes. Also, a device that moves a probe across a surface to map flaws or thickness variations such as a tank bottom scanner. Scanners, crawlers or trackers are used in regions too small, long or dangerous for an operator to access or navigate manually. 
   Portable / Hand Held / Mobile       Devices are portable, handheld or mobile. 
   Monitoring System       Devices are monitors or monitoring systems used to continuously detect or measure flaws, thickness or corrosion. 
   Other       Other unlisted or proprietary form factors. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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Technology
   Technology:       
   Your choices are...         
   Acoustic Emission       Acoustic emission instruments monitor conditions and detect changes in mechanical, electrical and process systems. In electrical power distribution systems, they detect shorting or arcing. In mechanical systems, flaws also provide specific acoustic or vibrational responses. For example, if a break, deformation or other failure occurs, acoustic emission (AE) sensors can detect the burst of high frequency caused by the event. Continuous acoustic emissions are associated with dislocation movement and the resulting strain or deformation. Bursts or short pulses of acoustic emissions signals are produced by micro-yielding, twinning, and crack formation. Melting, phase transformation, thermal stresses, fiber breakage and fiber-matrix debonding in composites also result in acoustic emissions.    Monitoring acoustic emissions can also access the location and severity. This NDT technique is particularly useful in determining the structural adequacy of tanks and pressure vessels.  AE is also used for the detection of faults or leakage in pressure vessels, tanks, and piping systems. Welds and stress corrosion cracking can be monitored on-line with AE techniques. 
   Air / Structure Borne       Air and structure-borne detection methods find faults in electrical and mechanical systems based on the detection of acoustic signals. These signals can be airborne, travel through the air or reside only within a solid structure or mechanical system.  There are many applications for air or structure-borne ultrasonic detection or inspection methods. 
  • Access door or hatch leaks
  • Bearings
  • Chillers, air conditioners and cooling systems
  • Circuit breakers, fuses and switches
  • Compressed air leaks
  • Distillation columns
  • Electrical systems (arcing, corona or tracking)
  • Gears and gear boxes
  • Heat exchanger, boiler and condenser leaks
  • Mechanical systems
  • Motors
  • Pump cavitation
  • Specialty gas systems
  • Steam traps
  • Switchgear, busbar, busways and panel boards
  • Tanks, tubing, hose and pipes leaks
  • Under or over-lubrication 
  • Vacuum system leaks
  • Valve leaks
  • Water leaks
  • Wind noise
 
   IR / Nuclear       Infrared (IR), nuclear and beta gauge instruments use the absorption of radiation to measure the thickness or basis weight of webs, sheet materials or coatings. With nonmetallic materials such as paper or plastic films or webs, the amount of radiation that is reflected back or transmitted through the material is measured to determine absorption levels. An increase in mass, density or thickness will result in increased absorption. Often, the gauge is calibrated with a sample of known thickness, density or mass. The radiation source used can be IR (i.e., infrared electromagnetic), nuclear (i.e., beta particles) or other (e.g., x-ray, gamma rays) and depends upon the material and inspection conditions.  
   Eddy Current / Electromagnetic       Eddy current, penetrating radar and other electromagnetic techniques detect or measure flaws, bond or weld integrity, thickness, electrical conductivity and the presence of rebar or metals. Eddy current is the most widely applied electromagnetic NDT technique. This method is also useful in sorting alloys and verifying heat treatment.  Eddy current testing uses an electromagnet to induce an eddy current in a conductive sample. The response of the material to the induced current is sensed. Since the probe does not have to contact the work surface, eddy current testing is useful on rough surfaces or surfaces with wet films or coatings. 
   Electromagnetic Acoustic Resonance       Electromagnetic acoustic resonance (EMAR) uses a non-contact electromagnetic transducer to impart a signal for resonant acoustic analysis. The non-contact, EM-induced signal produces a pure resonant response. Mechanical vibration from surrounding machinery does not influence the ultrasonic signals in the materials or parts being inspected. Localized or wide acoustic fields can be generated, depending what features need to be isolated and measured. Small surface or subsurface flaws or anomalies can also be isolated. Specifically, the entire part can be resonated for elastic stiffness and structural integrity assessments. 
   Magnetic       Magnetic techniques used in non-destructive testing include Hall effect and induction. 
   Magnetic Particle System       Magnetic particle systems use current flow or an external magnet to magnetize the part. Magnetic poles that are created at flaws, cracks and other discontinuities attract magnetic particles made of fine iron oxide (0.125 to 60 microns). These particles have a high permeability (i.e., easily magnetized) and low retentivity (i.e., ability to stay magnetized). Three methods are typically applied: dry nonfluorescent, wet nonfluorescent and wet fluorescent. 
   Optical / Laser       Optical-based NDT instruments use techniques such as laser shearography, magneto-optical methods and holographic interferometry to detect flaws and residual stress, or to measure thickness. 
   Penetrant Testing System       Penetrant testing systems apply a penetrant to the part via spray or immersion. The penetrant is pulled into surface flaws by capillary action. Next, a cleaner removes residual penetrant from the surface of the part so that only the liquid penetrant remains in the surface flaws or cracks that are present. Penetrant systems are available with varying sensitivity levels, depending on the material and flaw type being inspected. For example, red dye penetrants are visible under normal light. Fluorescent penetrants or penetrant systems may require ultraviolet (UV) or backlight illumination. Developers or fluorescent powders may be required to enhance visibility of the residual or crack-entrapped penetrant. 
   Radiographic / X-ray       Radiographic or x-ray equipment uses penetrating x-rays or gamma rays to capture images of the internal structure of a part or finished product. The density and composition of the internal features will alter their intensity or density in the x-ray image.  Densitometers are used to quantify the density variations in the x-ray image. Penetrameters or other x-ray opaque gage references are located with the part during imaging for sizing of internal cracks, pores, defects or other features. 
   Ultrasonic       Ultrasonic (UT) inspection techniques detect surface and subsurface flaws, or to measure thickness. Beams of high-frequency acoustic energy are introduced into the material and subsequently retrieved. Distance calculations are based on the speed of sound through the material under evaluation. The most widely used of all UT techniques is the pulse-echo technique. Flaws are detected and sizes estimated by comparing the amplitude of a reflected echo from an interface (e.g., flaw or back surface) with that of a reference interface of known size. 
   Other       Other unlisted nondestructive techniques or technologies. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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