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Help with Pulp and Paper Testing Equipment specifications:

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   Absorption / Water Absorption (e.g., COBB)       Testers evaluate the amount of water absorbed by a material. Note that absorption differs from adsorption. Absorption takes in water past the surface and into the material itself. Adsorption is the accumulation of vapor or water onto the surface of a material. Plastics and paper materials can have varying degrees of water absorption. Typically, COBB testers are used in the paper industry to determine water absorption characteristics. 
   Adsorption / Desorption (Chemisorption/ Physisorption)       Instruments or test equipment are designed for adsorption and desorption studies. Adsorption is the physicochemical adhesion of a substance (liquid, gas, or dissolved solids sorbate) onto the surface of a solid or liquid. Adsorption results in the accumulation of molecules of gases, or ions or molecules of liquids, at the surfaces of contacting solids or liquids. Desorption is the release of the molecular layer of the adsorbed on the surface of an absorbent. Desorption can be caused by high temperature, high humidity, or scalping. Chemisorption is the process by which sorbates are adsorbed and chemically changed by a reaction with the sorbent material. Physisorption is the process where molecules are physically bonded to the surface by Van der Vals and weak dipole forces. Physisorption processes are more reversible, and weaker bonds are formed compared to chemisorption processes. Sorption, adsorption, and desorption can be determined by measuring weight changes of the sorbate material.  
   Brittleness       Brittleness or friability is a measure of how easily a material can be fractured, crushed or broken. Brittleness can be determined by impacting the material with a controlled load. A very friable paper or plastic film would be considered weak and easily crushed or broken. The oxidation, aging and temperature increases can make paper brittle. Acid paper is susceptible to brittleness 
   Compressibility       Testers or test equipment determine the compactability or compressibility of materials. These properties can be important in understanding the processing or end-use function of powders, foams, filter media and other compressible or porous materials. 
   Consistency / % Solids       Consistency is the amount of dry solids (% solids) or fibers in pulp or paper stock. It determines how the pulp can be formed and processed into paper. If the consistency is too thin or too thick, a paper web will not form properly. The specific consistency required depends on the paper-forming equipment used and the product being formed. 
   Contamination (Shives, Dirt, Stickles, etc.)       Contamination analysis determines presence or levels of toxic metals, dirt, inclusion, slag, shives, swarf, grinding debris, bacterial, microbial or other undesirable foreign substances in a material. Impurities in coal, hydrogen, biofuels, gasoline and other fuels can degrade combustion efficiency, foul engines, and pollute the environment. The amount of shives, dirt and stickle in pulp or paper can influence processability. Contaminants in a coating, ink, or adhesive mixture can result in streaks or repeating defects in the finished product. Impurities in coal, hydrogen, biofuels, gasoline and other fuels can degrade combustion efficiency, foul engines, and pollute the environment. An evaluation of the cleanliness, hygiene, or level of sterilization is very important for food, beverages, cosmetics, drugs, medical, biotech and pharmaceutical products. Specialized instruments or test equipment may be used to evaluate the cleanliness, hygiene, or level of sterilization applied to a material. Testers often use the detection of bacteria or ATP to determine cleanliness or sanitary properties. UV light sources can also be useful. 
   Disintegration / Dissolution       Disintegration or dissolution is the rate at which a chemical, material, drug, or pharmaceutical dissolves when put into water, another solvent or a simulated oral, digestive, or circulatory environment. 
   Processability       Instrument and test equipment used to determine processability, plasticity and viscoelastic properties. 
   Flammability       Flash point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid can form an ignitable mixture in air near the surface of the liquid. The lower the flash point, the easier it is to ignite the material. Flammability is a measure of how quickly a material will ignite and propagate combustion. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) have standards for the fire testing of materials. The UL 94 standard for flammability testing describes 12 flame classifications based on small-scale flame tests. UL 94 determines a material’s tendency to either propagate or extinguish a flame on an ignited and burning sample. UL 746A determine a material’s resistance to ignition. 
   Freeness / Drainage Rate       Freeness or drainage rate is the speed at which water can be removed from pulp. Canadian Standard Freeness (ml CSF) and degree SR are freeness measurements. Slowness is the inverse of freeness. The degree of freeness or slowness is controlled by the amount of beating or refining applied to the pulp. 
   Friction (COF) / Wall Friction       Friction testers test friction force, the resisting force tangential to the interface between two bodies when, under the action of an external force, one body moves or tends to move relative to the other. Coefficient of friction (COF,μ) values are often determined. Friction force = (μ) x (Normal Force). The COF can be dynamic (sliding) or static. Wall friction between a powder and die wall is important in understanding compaction for manufacturing pills, metal parts, ceramics, and other compacts. 
   Permeability - Gas / Vapor       Gas or vapor permeability is a measurement of a sample’s ability to transmit gases or vapors. The oxygen transmission rate (OTR) and the water vapor transmission rate (WVTr) are important measurements in determining the ability of a packaging film or material to maintain freshness. 
   Permeability - Liquid       Liquid permeability measures a sample's ability to transmit liquids. 
   Porosity - Densometry       Densometers are used for measuring porosity, air-permeability, or air resistance of sheet-like or bulk materials such as paper, woven cloth, porous plastics, nonwoven textiles, filtration media, and membranes. Densometers measure by determining the time required to drive or flow a fixed, known volume of air through a sample. Some densometers or densometry instruments also provide smoothness and softness indications through permeation measurements. Nuclear densometers are used to measure porosity, density, and moisture content in soil, asphalt, concrete and pavement field applications. 
   Porosimetry / Pore Volume       Porosimeters measure the pore volume and distribution in a bulk material. They use either liquid intrusion into pores or liquid extrusion from pores to measure pore volume. Porometers or bubble point testers determine the point at which pressure can overcome capillary action in a porous material. 
   Smoothness       Smoothness is determined by porosity and uniformity (flatness or even-ness). Smoothness influences printability. A flat, even surface prints more consistently than a rough, uneven surface. A smooth surface provides better ink dot formation and sharper images.  A variety of different techniques or scales are available for smoothness testing. These include Bendtsen, Sheffield, Bekk, Parker Print Surf (PPS), Oken, and Gurley. Some instruments are based on one technique, but provide calculated equivalent smoothness reading values on other unit scales. Many of the instruments are based on surface air leak or air permeability test methods. 
   Stability / Stability Index       Tester or test instrument determine the stability or stability index of a material based on some property such as curling under raised humidity levels, discoloration over time or brittleness development with elevated temperature conditions. 
   Wear / Abrasion       Ferrographs are used to analyze wear debris or particles in oils, lubricants, and greases. The shape, size, concentration, count, and composition can indicate a great deal about lubricant and machine condition. Wear analysis can also be performed on wear surfaces. 
   Wettability / Contact Angle       Contact or wetting angles are a measure of wettability. Contact angles are determined by the relative surface and surface tension or energies of the materials in contact. The equation that governs wetting angle (θ) is SA (solid-air) - SA (Liquid-solid) = SA (liquid-air)cos(θ) . SA (liquid-solid) is the surface energy of the liquid-solid interface or interfacial energy. SA (liquid-air) is the surface energy of the liquid-air interface or interfacial energy. SA (solid-air) is the surface energy of the solid-air interface or interfacial energy.  
   Other       Other unlisted, specialized, or proprietary configurations.  
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Display & Special Features
   Display & Special Features       
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   Analog Meter       Data is displayed with an analog meter or simple visual indicator. 
   Computer Interface / Networkable       The instrument can be connected to a network or personal computer for the transfer of data or test control. 
   Digital Readout       Device uses numerical or application-specific displays. 
   SPC Software / Capability       Instruments have integral or optional SPC software or analysis capability. 
   Graphic / Video Display       The data is presented in video form with a cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), or other multi-line form. 
   Other       Other unlisted display option types. 
   Search Logic:      All products with ANY of the selected attributes will be returned as matches. Leaving all boxes unchecked will not limit the search criteria for this question; products with all attribute options will be returned as matches.
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