Door Closers Information


Door closer from GraingerDoor closers close a door at a determined rate after it has been manually opened. They are usually mounted at the top of a door and frame and offer an increased level of safety, security, and accessibility.


Selection Criteria


When selecting a door closer there are several factors to consider, including sizing, mounting, application, and appearance. Multiple spring sizes are available to accommodate different sized and weight doors as well as various constructions to accommodate architectural, institutional or security applications.




Closers are sized from one to seven with the higher numbers used for more powerful units. Manufacturers have selection guides based on the height and weight of the door but there are adjustable units if an accurate door sizing is unavailable.


The following chart shows the test door mass/size for the seven identified grades under the BS EN 1154 classification (a recognized standard for classifying door closers).


Test Door Mass/Size

Power Size Number

Recommended Door Width

Test Door Mass Kg



20 KG



40 KG



60 KG



80 KG



100 KG



120 KG



160 KG

Chart Credit Bernards


Design Tip: The most widely used setting is size 3 and the standard adjustable closer will be set at a size 3 when shipped.  




There are two styles of door closers.


Surface-mounted closers are installed on the surface of the door and frame. They are visible, economical, and the easiest to install. There are four designs to this device: slide-track arm, regular surface mounted, parallel arm surface mounted, and top jamb mounted.


Concealed closers can be hidden in the frame or floor. They are not visible when the door is closed but they are difficult to install and expensive.


Concealed door closer. Image Credit: Taylor Security and Lock


Design Tip:Closers can be mounted on either side of the door. Most mounters are designed to mount on the pull size of the door. In order to mount the closer on the push side of the door a closer with a parallel arm-mounting can be used.




Door closers come with a variety of features available.


Hardware grade should be considered depending on the application. Grade 1 is used for high-traffic commercial applications. Grade 2 is best for light use such as small commercial and standard residential. Grade 3 is a very light option for residential applications, such as guest or storage rooms.


Many commercial or residential buildings have fire rating requirements for the door and door closer. A metal label will identify the fire rating.


A variety of finishes are available. The finish of the closer can be selected to match the surrounding environment.


Backcheck is available on some models. This option also acts as a door stop to prevent the door from swinging too far or too fast and damaging the nearby areas.


Delayed action closers provide a delay period from when the door is opened to when it closes. These devices are used when the door will be used by wheelchair users or people with carts or strollers. They are required by the ADA for many entrance doors.


Delayed Action. Image Credit: Mayflower Sales Company




Door closer on door from designbuild-networkBS EN 1154 classification for door closers is the standard classifier for door closers by means of a 6 digit coding system. The digits relate to a particular feature of the product measured against the standards performance requirements. The meaning of these digits is as follows:


  • 1st Digit - Category of use: Grade 3 is for doors closing from at least 105° and Grade 4 is for doors closing from 180° open.

  • 2nd Digit - Durability: Grade 8 indicates that 500,000 test cycles are completed
  • 3rd Digit - Test door mass/size: This identifies seven grades of power as indicated in the table above.
  • 4th Digit - Fire Behavior: Grade 0 is not suitable for use on fire/smoke doors, Grade 1 is suitable for use on fire/smoke doors. This feature is assessed outside of BS EN 1154.
  • 5th Digit - Safety: All door closers are required to satisfy the essential requirement of safety in use and then designated Grade 1.
  • 6th Digit - Corrosion resistance: Five grades are identified according to BS EN 1670. Grade 0 = no defined resistance, Grade 1 = mild resistance, Grade 2 = moderate resistance, Grade 3 = high resistance, Grade 4 = very high resistance.

A door closer with the following marking therefore would denote a closer opening to at least 105° with a power size of 4 which is suitable for a fire door inside a building: 384110




How to Choose the Correct Door Closer


Overhead Door Closers



Image Credits:

Grainger | designbuild-network