From Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle, Second Edition


In recent years engine modeling has become more and more important in the development process. In an early development stage new strategies can be examined without expensive test bench measurements. Further on, control strategies can be designed and optimized. Thereby new requirements for the models arise.

  • Multiple direct fuel injection in diesel engines

    Direct fuel injection was a breakthrough for diesel engines. By means of multiple injections in common rail systems, the evaporation process and subsequently the combustion process can be directly influenced.

  • Stratified charge in SI engines

    As explained in Section 5.1, SI engines work with a homogeneous air-fuel mixture at stoichiometric air-fuel ratios because the catalytic converter shows extremely good conversion rates under such conditions. At part load, directly injected SI engines work with lean air-fuel mixtures. In order to get a safe combustion a stratified charge is assembled around the spark plug. In such engines the charge exchange, turbulences inside the combustion chamber and the injection process must be modeled.

  • Exhaust gas calculation

    One of the major problems is to model the exhaust gas generation fairly accurate. The maximum allowable emissions are determined by law. In order to meet such regulations two strategies are pursued in parallel. One is to minimize the raw emissions of noxious gases from the combustion process. The other is to clean the exhaust gases by means of catalytic after treatment systems. Both strategies need sophisticated control systems and dynamic models of the chemical processes involved.

Because of the rising importance of...

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Combustion Engines
Industrial engines are heavy-duty, internal combustion engines that are used to power and propel vehicles, machinery, and equipment. They burn a liquid or gaseous fuel such as gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, propane, or natural gas.
Auxiliary Power Units (APU)
Auxiliary power units (APU) provide supplemental power for a variety of purposes such as main engine starting, cabin climate control, engine block heating, and battery charging for seacraft, aircraft, and roadway vehicles.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems inject ammonia into boiler flue gas and pass it through a catalyst bed where the nitrogen oxide gas (NOx) and ammonia react to form nitrogen and water vapor.
Carburetors are devices used to proportionally mix a fuel with air for a combustion process.
Fuel Injectors
Fuel injectors dispense a fuel mist into an engine and can be controlled to deliver precise amounts of fuel at specified time intervals.

Topics of Interest

5.1 Lambda Control In stoichiometric engine operation, emission levels heavily depend on how accurate the air-fuel ratio can be kept at ? = 1. Due to measurement and computational tolerances,...

Researchers at all the major car companies and U.S. labs are trying to perfect homogenous-charge compressionignition technology (HCCI) in the quest for more fuel-efficient internal combustion engines.

Cummins Inc., Columbus, Ind., is on track toward meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 3 diesel-engine standards that take effect in January 2005. ), is on track toward meeting...

Sophisticated electronic controls and fuel systems improve combustion efficiency and substantially cut emissions. Sophisticated electronic controls and fuel systems improve combustion efficiency and...

What many consider the Holy Grail of combustion technology is one step closer to prime time. In the race to field energy-efficient vehicles, don't count out internal combustion technology just yet. GM...

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