From Dean's Analytical Chemistry Handbook, Second Edition

The magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic moment are often used to describe the magnetic behaviors of substances. Some important related concepts, formulas, and tables of magnetic properties useful to measure magnetic susceptibility are presented in this section. For theoretical and experimental details the reader should refer to the Bibliography.


13.1.1 Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density

The principal measure of the strength of a magnetic field is the magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction) vector B per unit area taken perpendicularly to the direction of the magnetic flux. The SI unit is the tesla T, where one tesla is one weber per square meter (or one newton per ampere per meter).

The magnetic flux ? is the magnitude of a magnetic field, as given by the product of the magnetic flux density and area involved. It is also the total number of lines of force emanating from the (north) pole face of a magnet.


13.1.2 Magnetic Dipole Moment

A magnetic dipole is a macroscopic or microscopic magnetic system in which the north and south poles of a magnet, equal and opposite in character, are separated by a short but definite distance. A magnetic dipole tends to orient itself parallel to an applied magnetic field in the same way that an electric dipole behaves in an electric field.

In the presence of a magnetic field, magnetic dipoles within a material experience a turning effect and become partially oriented; the orientation is proportional to their...

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Magnetometers are scientific instruments that measure the strength and/or direction of a magnetic field. There are two basic types: scalar and vector.
Magnetic Chucks
Magnetic chucks use the magnetic force from a permanent magnet, electromagnet or electro-permanent magnet to achieve chucking or holding action. They are only suitable for workpieces made of magnetic materials such as steel or iron.
Gaussmeters are instruments designed to measure extremely high level magnetic fields.
Magnetic Field Sensors
Magnetic field sensors measure magnetic field strength, direction, and/or magnetic flux. They are used for scientific measurement, navigation, and industrial applications.
Magnetic Cores
Magnetic cores are doughnut-shaped magnetic materials that are used with inductors, transformers and electromagnets. They are also used as computer memory elements.

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