From Universal Joints and Driveshafts: Analysis, Design, Applications

4.7 Basic Procedure for the Applications Engineering of Driveshafts

The loading of driveshafts depends both on the prime mover and the machinery which is connected. This is given by the shock or operating factor f ST (Table 4.2).

The objective is a balanced relationship between the maximum transmitted torque M 0 (permanent deformation ? b /d < 1 10 ?4) and the required durability L hx If the life L hx is too short, the speed is increased by altering the gear ratios to reduce the torque M 0. The effect of the change in the speed on the life L hx is linear; the effect of changing the torque is to the third power.

The basic procedure for the applications engineering of a constantly loaded drive shaft is shown in Table 4.22. The decision on whether to use a Hooke's joint or a constant velocity joint, i.e. the permissible non-uniformity, is made with the help of (1.2) in Sect. 1.2.1 (Fig. 1.7).

For variable loading, as in a motor vehicle, the life is calculated with a mean torque M m obtained by transforming (1.22) using P = M/R (Sect. 1.5.3). The individual joints are examined using a mean articulation angle ? m The life is derived from the total fatigue damage 1/ L hx, made up of the damage for each individual gear, see (1.20) and the calculation examples in Sects. 4.4.5 and The...

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Globe Valves
Globe valves are linear motion valves with rounded bodies, from which their name is derived.  They are widely used in industry to regulate fluid flow in both on/off and throttling service. 
Diaphragm Valves
Diaphragm valves close by means of a flexible diaphragm attached to a compressor.
Air Valves
Air valves allow metered fluid flow in one or both directions. They are used in pneumatic circuits to regulate the rate of activation or exhaust of cylinders and other pneumatic devices.
Manual Valve Actuators
Manual valve actuators do not require an outside power source. They use a handwheel or lever to drive a series of gears whose ratio results in a higher output torque compared to the input (manual) torque.
Pneumatic Valve Actuators
Pneumatic valve actuators adjust valve position by converting air pressure into linear or rotary motion.

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