From Water and Wastewater Calculations Manual

This chapter includes mainly lake morphometry, evaporation, and the Clean Lakes Program (CLP). Since most lake management programs in the United States are based on the CLP, the CLP is discussed in detail. Regulatory requirements and standardization of research and application are provided with a focus on the Phase 1, diagnostic/feasibility study.

1 Lakes and Impoundment Impairments

Lakes are extremely complex systems whose conditions are a function of physical, chemical, and biological (the presence and predominance of the various plants and organisms found in the lake) factors. Lakes inherently function as traps or sinks for pollutants from tributary watershed and drainage basins or from atmospheric precipitation.

Like streams, lakes are most often impaired by agricultural activities (main sources in the United States), hydrologic/habitat modification (stream channelization), and point pollution sources. These activities contribute to nutrient and sediment loads, suspended solids, and organic matter, and subsequently cause overgrowth of aquatic plants. The resulting decline in water quality limits recreation, impairs other beneficial uses, and shortens the expected life span of a lake.

Common lake problems are eutrophication, siltation, shoreline erosion, algal bloom, bad taste and/or odor, excessive growth of aquatic vegetation, toxic chemicals, and bacterial contamination. Eutrophication, or aging, the process by which a lake becomes enriched with nutrients, is caused primarily by point and nonpoint pollution sources from human activities. Some man-made lakes and impoundments may be untrophic from their birth. These problems impact esthetic and practical uses of the lake. For example, the growth of planktonic algae in water-supply...

Products & Services
Boats, Ships, and Off Shore Vessels
Boats, ships and offshore vessels are used to transport products, materials, and personnel on oceans, lakes, rivers, and canals.
Fountains deliver drinking water or provide aeration and circulation in lakes, ponds, and other waterways.
Dissolved Oxygen Meters
Dissolved oxygen meters are analytical instruments that are used to measure the amount of oxygen dissolved in a liquid sample.
Nitrification and Denitrification Systems
Nitrification systems are used to control ammonia levels. Denitrification systems are used to turn nitrate into gaseous nitrogen species.
Water Quality Testing Instruments
Water quality testing instruments are used to test water for chemical and biological agents, and to measure variables such as clarity and rate of movement.

Topics of Interest

1 Definition 1.1 Groundwater and aquifer Groundwater is subsurface water which occurs beneath the earth's surface. In a hydraulic water cycle, groundwater comes from surface waters (precipitation...

This chapter includes mainly lake morphometry, evaporation, and the Clean Lakes Program (CLP). Since most lake management programs in the United States are based on the CLP, the CLP is discussed in...

1.1 PROGRESS IN WATER QUALITY In the 1970s, much of Lake Erie was little more than a eutrophied cesspool. Agricultural runoff and organic and nutrient loadings from untreated or partially treated...

2.1 LEADING CAUSES OF WATER QUALITY IMPAIRMENT Water pollution is a general term used to describe the degradation of water quality resulting from the loss of the productive or aesthetic uses of the...

F. X. Browne, Ph.D., P.E* [*] OVERVIEW Stormwater management encompasses all elements of the hydrologic cycle but focuses on how humans affect the production, movement, and control of surface...

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