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## 13.4. BINARY DISTILLATION

Key concepts of the calculation of distillation are well illustrated by analysis of the distillation of binary mixtures. Moreover, many real systems are essentially binary or can be treated as binaries made up of two pseudo components, for which it is possible to calculate upper and lower limits to the equipment size for a desired separation.

The calculational base consists of equilibrium relations and material and energy balances. Equilibrium data for many binary systems are available as tabulations of x vs. y at constant temperature or pressure or in graphical form as on Figure 13.3. Often they can be extended to other pressures or temperatures or expressed in mathematical form as explained in Section 13.1. Sources of equilibrium data are listed in the references. Graphical calculation of distillation problems often is the most convenient method, but numerical procedures may be needed for highest accuracy.

### MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES

In terms of the nomenclature of Figure 13.5, the balances between stage n and the top of the column are

 (13.63)
 (13.64)
 (13.65)

where

 (13.66)

Figure 13.5: Model of a fractionating tower.

is the enthalpy removed at the top of the column per unit of overhead product. These balances may be solved for the liquid/ vapor ratio as

 (13.67)

and rearranged as a combined material and energy balance as

 (13.68)

Similarly the balance between plate m below the feed and the bottom of the column can be put in the form

 (13.69)

where

 (13.70)

is...

##### Products & Services
Laboratory Balances
Laboratory balances are used to measure an object’s mass to a very high degree of precision.
Distillation Equipment and Solvent Recovery Systems
Distillation equipment and solvent recovery systems are used for steam and wastewater stripping, chemical product purification, and solvent recovery.
Scales and Balances
Scales and balances are used to measure static or dynamic loads for a wide range of industrial applications.
Property Testing Equipment
Property testers are used to determine various physical properties of samples, including cloud point, distillation, flash point, freezing point, melting point, pour point, and vapor pressure.
Tower Packing
Tower packing and tower fill materials are used in cooling towers to provide a high surface area for steam condensation without restricting air flow.

##### Topics of Interest

13.5. BATCH DISTILLATION A batch distillation plant consists of a still or reboiler, a column with several trays, and provisions for reflux and for product collection. Figure 13.9 (c) is a typical...

Binary Distillation; Additional Cases; Enthalpy-Equilibrium Approach The McCabe-Thiele method can be used for a variety of special cases. Figure 5-14 illustrates the situation if two feeds are used.

OVERVIEW The feasibility of separation of mixtures by distillation, absorption, or stripping depends on the fact that the compositions of vapor and liquid phases are different from each other at...

Binary Distillation; the McCabe-Thiele Method In the case of a continuous distillation column (see Figure 5-8) a method used to determine the number of ideal stages is the McCabe-Thiele.

Overview M. F. Doherty, Ph.D. Professor of Chemical Engineering, University of California Santa Barbara (Section Editor) Z. T. Fidkowski, Ph.D. Process Engineer, Air Products and Chemicals...

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