From Electromechanical Design Handbook, Third Edition


Springs are among the most important and most often used mechanical components. Many mechanisms and assemblies would be virtually impossible to design and manufacture without the use of springs in one form or another. There are many different types of springs and spring materials. We will cover all the most important and common types and forms which are designed and manufactured today. See Fig. 7.1 for typical springs.

Figure 7.1: Samples of typical springs.

Spring types or forms are summarized as follows.

  1. Compression springs, straight and conical

    1. Round wire

    2. Square wire

    3. Rectangular wire

  2. Extension springs, straight

    1. Round wire

  3. Torsion springs

    1. Round wire

    2. Square wire

  4. Coil springs, spiral

  5. Leaf springs

    1. Cantilever

    2. Both ends supported (beam)

  6. Spring washers

    1. Curved

    2. Wave

  7. Hair springs, very light load

  8. Torsion bars

  9. Belleville washers (disk springs)

Considerations Prior to the Spring Design Process. It is important when designing springs to adhere to proper procedures and design considerations. Some of the important design considerations in spring work are outlined here.

  1. Selection of material for spring construction

    1. Space limitations: Do you have adequate space in the mechanism to use economical materials such as oil-tempered ASTM A229 spring wire? If your space is limited by design and you need maximum energy and mass, you should consider using materials such as music wire, ASTM A228 chrome vanadium or chrome silicon steel wire.

    2. Economy: Will economical materials such as ASTM A229 wire suffice for the intended application?

    3. Corrosion resistance: If the spring is...

Products & Services
Compression Springs

Compression springs are the most recognizable of spring and are intended to oppose compaction in the direction of the axis. The spring is extended at rest, shorten and store energy when a load is applied, and is one most efficient energy storage devices available. Traditionally, they are wound and uniform in pitch and diameter, but these traits vary considerably today.

Spring and Wire Forming Machines
Spring and wire forming machines are used to form wire into springs and other shapes.
Spring Winding Services
Spring winding services providers fabricate springs to specifications supplied by their customers, often providing design assistance.
Torsion Springs
Helically wound springs that deflect torque rotationally, torsion springs express mechanical energy through the property of elasticity: the spring action happens when it is twisted rather than compressed or pulled. Despite the name, torsion springs are subject to bending stress--not torsion--as the torque is carried through the length of the wound material.
Extension Springs

Helically wound to oppose resistant forces, extension springs have consistent mechanical energy to return to its no-load, compressed position. The ends of the spring are attached to components intended to move apart, with the extension spring providing a reliable return force.

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