From Optical Bit Error Rate

2.13.6   Polarization-Mode Dispersion

All fibers have some residual birefringence and a core that is not perfectly circular
over their entire length. Fiber birefringence and core noncircularity cause an optical
(monochromatic) signal to be separated into two orthogonally polarized signals, or
principal states of polarization (PSP), each traveling at a different speed and phase.
The same thing happens to each pulse of a modulated optical signal; the pulse is separated
into two pulses, each traveling at a different speed. Thus, when the two signals
recombine, because of the variation in time of arrival, a pulse spreading occurs. This
phenomenon is particularly noticeable in single-mode fiber transmission at ultrahigh
bit rates (above 2.5 Gbps) and is known as polarization-mode dispersion (PMD).

By definition (see ITU-T G.650), PMD is measured by the average differential
group delay time (DGD) over wavelength between two orthogonally polarized
modes (measured in ps). PMD is maximized if both PSPs are equally and maximally
excited, resulting in maximum DGD and pulse spreading. Conversely, PMD vanishes
or is greatly minimized if only one of the two states is excited. Similarly, the
polarization mode dispersion coefficient is defined as the PMD divided by the
square root of fiber length (measured in ). Optical fibers have a polarization-
mode dispersion coefficient of less than (see ITU-T G.650, G.652,
G.653, and G.655).

As a consequence of the DGD definition, if DGD is measured by the average
difference of time arrival, Δτ, between the two orthogonally polarized modes, and
the two polarized modes are related to the birefringence of the fiber, Δng, then DGD is
measured by

 Δτ = (ΔngL)/c

where c is the speed of light, L is the length of the fiber, and ng is the refractive index
variation corresponding to the group velocity of the orthogonal polarization states.


Products & Services
Fiber Optic Transceivers
Fiber optic transceivers include both a transmitter and a receiver in the same component.
Fiber Optic Test Equipment
Fiber optic test equipment is used to detect the signal loss/change through a fiber optic cable.
Fiber Optic Receivers
Fiber optic receivers are instruments that convert light into electrical signals. They contain a photodiode semiconductor, signal conditioning circuitry, and an amplifier.
Fiber Optic Transmitters
Fiber optic transmitters are devices that include an LED or laser source, and signal conditioning electronics, to inject a signal into fiber.
Time Division Multiplexers (TDM)
Time division multiplexers (TDM) share transmission time on the information channel among many data sources.

Topics of Interest

2.13.7   Polarization-Mode Dispersion Compensation Fibers are specified by an average differential group delay (DGD) in ps or a mean DGD coefficient in . For a low-PMD fiber, the mean DGD...

9.6.3 PMD and Polarization-Dependent Losses As discussed in Section 3.4, fluctuations in the residual birefringence of optical fibers change the state of polarization (SOP) of all channels in a random...

9.5.3 Polarization Interleaving of Channels As discussed in Section 8.5.3, the impact of intrachannel nonlinear effects can be reduced considerably by ensuring that the neighboring bits in a channel...

4.11 ENGINEERING DWDM SYSTEMS Engineering a DWDM system begins with a market investigation to understand the business opportunities and how the "to be built" system fits the communications...

2.13.8   Polarization-Mode Coupling PMD has been phenomenologically explained by extensive vectorial analysis that considers the propagation of principal states of polarization. In a graphical...