From SilicideTechnology for Integrated Circuits

Y.F. Hsieh, S.L. Cheng and L.J. Chen


This chapter will describe the fundamental principle of the analytical tools of materials characterisation and specially emphasise the joint applications of two or more techniques applied in various studies of silicide formation. It is aimed to illustrate a specific topic from different perspectives, in order to gain an overall picture of the issue, such as macrostructure versus microstructure examination, electrical properties versus physical characteristics, carrier distribution versus impurity involvement, and lattice imaging versus computer simulation.


9.2.1 Introduction

Analytical tools are indispensable in all kinds of research and development activities. Based on the analytical purposes, the tools of materials characterisation can be categorised into three major fields of applications physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses and electrical analyses, as shown in FIGURE 9.1. The most popular techniques are listed as follows [1, 2, 3].

Figure 9.1: Popular tools of materials characterisation, which can be categorised as being for physical/structural analyses, chemical/elemental analyses, and electrical analyses. Physical/structural analysis

  • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  • Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)

  • Focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy

  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  • Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM)

  • Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM)

  • X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  • Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS)

  • Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM)

  • Reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED)

  • Stress measurement Chemical/elemental analysis

  • Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) of X-ray

  • Wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS) of X-ray

  • Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

  • Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

  • Total reflection X-ray fluorescence...

Products & Services
Chemical Testing Services
Chemical testing services test, analyze, and certify a wide range of chemicals for purity, chemical compatibility, and environmental impact.
Environmental Testing and Analysis Services
Environmental testing and analytical services provide testing of environmental samples such as soil, water, air, and industrial wastes or byproducts.
Microscopy and Metallography Sample Preparation Equipment
Microscopy sample preparation equipment and metallography sample preparation equipment is used for the preparation of samples for metallographic or microscopic inspection and analysis.
Wafer and Thin Film Instrumentation
Instruments such as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitors, ellipsometers, RHEED systems, imaging stations, CD-SEMs, ion mills, C-V systems specifically designed for wafer metrology or in-situ monitoring of thin film parameters during thin film or semiconductors wafer processing.

Topics of Interest

Appendix: Glossary A Agglomeration A morphological degradation of microstructure in polycrystalline materials, driven by surface/grain boundary energy reduction, resulting in disintegration of...

Overview Frequently, in work carried out to attempt to elucidate the microstructure of polymers and copolymers, it is found necessary to employ not one physical analytical technique, but a range of...

Alexander J. Shapiro 3.1 Introduction Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has become one of the most versatile and useful methods for direct imaging, characterization, and studying of solid surfaces.

Table 1.1: Properties of Materials and Methods of Analysis Property Method of Analysis Color OM(S/B) Virtual image and magnification OM(S) High topological magnification EWS) Subsurface...

Overview A variety of instrumental techniques have been used to determine functional groups in polymers and to elucidate the detail of polymer structure. These include infrared spectroscopy,...