Optical Shop Testing

Chapter 16 - Optical Metrology of Diffuse Surfaces

This chapter discusses moire, fringe projection, structured illumination, holographic
interferometry, digital holography, and speckle interferometry techniques for testing
diffuse surfaces. Diffuse surfaces may be ground optical surfaces; or more often than
not, they are other types of engineering surfaces or human figures. The main
applications of these techniques are to determine surface form and shape or to
measure displacement due to stress and object motion. When measuring surface
form, these techniques provide a coarser and more flexible means of testing a wider
variety of surfaces than do conventional interferometers. For displacement measurement
due to applied stress, static as well as time-average and dynamic displacements
can be determined quantitatively. These techniques are used a lot in machine vision
applications, for process control, and for specialized measurement tasks on engineering
components. Applications range from measuring the shape of an airplane
window to determining whether components will stay on a circuit board, to studying
vibration modes of turbine blades, to monitoring the alignment of segments in a large
segmented telescope, to making replicas of historic sculptures, producing a well-fitting
pair of jeans, and creating animated movies or video games with realistic
motion of live figures. The newest techniques pushing the limits of this technology
currently focus on rapid prototyping and real-time shape observation for multimedia
and security.

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