From Practical Power System Protection

8.1 Tripping Batteries

8.1.1 Importance

The operation of monitoring devices like relays and the tripping mechanisms of breakers require independent power source, which does not vary with the main source being monitored. Batteries provide this power and hence they form an important role in protection circuits.

The relay/circuit breaker combination depends entirely on the tripping battery for successful operation. Without this, relays and breakers will not operate, becoming 'solid', making their capital investment very useless and the performance of the whole network unacceptable.

It is therefore necessary to ensure that batteries and chargers are regularly inspected and maintained at the highest possible level of efficiency at all times to enable correct operation of relays at the correct time.

8.1.2 How a Battery Works?

A battery is an assembly of cells. Whether it is used to make a call using mobile phone or to trip a circuit breaker, every cell has three things in common - positive and negative electrodes and an electrolyte. Whereas some of the dry cell batteries drain out their energy and are to be discarded, a stationary or storage battery used in the switchgear protection has the capability to be recharged.

There are two types of batteries used in an electrical control system:

  1. Lead acid type

  2. Nickel cadmium type.

Both the above types can be classified further into flooded type and sealed maintenance free type. The flooded cell construction basically refer to the electrodes of the cell in the electrolyte medium, which can be topped up with...

Products & Services
Lead Acid Batteries
Lead acid batteries are made up of plates, lead, and lead oxide with a 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water electrolyte solution.
Reserve Batteries
Reserve batteries are designed to retain their charge during long storage periods. The electrolyte is kept separate from the rest of battery to avoid self-discharge.
Rechargeable (Secondary) Batteries
Rechargeable batteries or secondary batteries contain active materials that can be regenerated by charging. When the energy produced by rechargeable batteries drops below optimum efficiency, secondary batteries may be recharged in a couple of ways, depending upon their construction. 
Lithium Batteries
Lithium batteries have a lithium anode. They are available as both primary batteries and secondary batteries.
Industrial batteries translate chemical energy into electricity.

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