From CMOS Current-Mode Circuits for Data Communications


Electro-static discharge (ESD) is one of the most important reliability problems in IC industry. ESD is a transient discharge of the static charge accumulated on a human body, a test device, or a chip through a low-impedance path due to either human handling or a machine contact. ESD damage to a chip include gate oxide breakdown caused by an excessive gate voltage and interconnect burn-out, such as contact spiking, silicide spiking, and metal migration due to excessive heat generated by a transient current in a localized volume of the chip [233, 234]. The aggressive down-scaling of the physical dimension of MOS devices and the rapid increase in the doping of modern CMOS technology have resulted in a significant reduction in both the thickness of the gate oxide and the width of the pn-junctions of MOS devices. The amount of energy needed to damage MOS devices is scaled down with technology. The level of ESD stress generated due to either human handling or device contacting, however, remains unchanged. Modern CMOS circuits are much more vulnerable to ESD stress.

To protect circuits from ESD-induced damage, ESD protection devices must provide a low-impedance path that bypasses the circuits under protection in an ESD event and discharges the static charge to the ground before it damages the protected circuits. These devices must be sufficiently large in size in order to withstand ESD stress and yet fast enough to release ESD stress before it damages the protected circuits. The large size of ESD protection...

Products & Services
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Suppressors
ESD suppressors are semiconductors that protect electronic components and systems from electrostatic discharge (ESD).
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Generators
Electrostatic discharge generators are machines used to generate electrostatic discharge (ESD) signals to test how much ESD a piece of electronic equipment can tolerate without damage.
Logic Gates
Logic gates are electronic circuits that combine digital signals according to boolean algebra.
Circuit Protection Components
Circuit protection devices are used to protect electronic components from unwanted transients such as current and voltage surges, electrostatic discharge (ESD), lightning, spikes and other signals that can imperil the operation or damage the component.
Gas Discharge Tubes (GDT)
Gas discharge tubes (GDT) or gas tube arrestors (GTA) provide protection against voltage and current surges in electronic and electrical equipment. They include spark gaps, simple devices with two or three conducting electrodes separated by a gap filled with a gas such as air.

Topics of Interest

AN595 Improving the Susceptibility of an Application to ESD-Induced Latch-up This short circuit will tend to reduce the voltage level on Author: David Wilkie the application (particularly if the...

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Do you believe in ghosts? If you are a manufacturing engineer, or find yourself involved anywhere within the production environment for microelectronics products, you should at least believe in the...